Reviewing State-of-the-Art Exergy Analysis of Various Types of Heat Exchangers – Part 1: Principles, Double-Pipe and Shell & Tube Heat Exchangers

Document Type : Review Article

Authors

1 Department of Renewable Energies and Environment, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, Tehran, I.R. IRAN

2 Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Urmia University, Urmia, I.R. IRAN

Abstract

The heat exchanger, an integral component in diverse processes, finds extensive application across industrial and domestic sectors. Functioning as a mechanical apparatus, it is designed to transfer or exchange heat between different mediums, thereby enhancing energy efficiency by redirecting surplus heat from unnecessary systems to those in need. Heat exchangers have become essential equipment in various end-user applications due to their environmentally friendly nature and their ability to boost overall energy efficiency in systems. The global market for heat exchangers has undergone significant changes in recent years, with manufacturers increasingly emphasizing efficiency and performance improvements. The enhanced performance of heat exchangers, driven by technological advancements, contributes to heightened energy consumption efficiency in the systems where these devices are employed. Exergetic assessments play a crucial role in improving heat exchanger efficiency from a thermodynamic standpoint. This study provides a comprehensive review of scientific papers, examining the exergetic aspects of various heat exchanger types. The literature survey explores the impact of parameters such as entropy generation, cumulative exergy destruction, nanofluids, geometry, and two-phase fluids on heat exchanger exergetic performance. It also discusses the effectiveness of different optimization approaches on the second law’s efficiency. Primarily, the study comprehensively reviews four types of heat exchangers—double-pipe, plate, cross-flow, and shell & tube—and briefly explains new types of heat exchangers. Part 1 of this study, presented in this manuscript, focuses on the fundamentals of exergy analyses in heat exchangers, with an emphasis on double-pipe and shell & tube heat exchangers. Future research directions aim to explore advanced materials with superior properties, innovative geometries for optimal performance, integration with renewable energy sources, smart technologies for adaptive control, machine learning applications for predictive modeling, and the potential of miniaturization and microscale heat exchangers. These endeavors seek to propel the field towards greater efficiency, sustainability, and adaptability across various applications.

Keywords

Main Subjects


[1] Le Q.H., Smida K., Abdelmalek Z., Tlili I.. Removal of Heavy Metals by Polymers from Wastewater in the Industry: A Molecular Dynamics Approach, Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements. 155: (2023) 1035-42.
[2] Beiranvand A., Ehyaei M.A., Ahmadi A., Silvaria J.L.. Energy, Exergy, and Economic Analyses and Optimization of Solar Organic Rankine Cycle with Multi-objective Particle Swarm Algorithm, Renewable Energy Research and Applications, 2: 9-23 (2021).
[3] Jalili M., Cheraghi R., Reisi M.M., Ghasempour R., Energy and Exergy Assessment of a New Heat Recovery Method in a Cement Factory, Renewable Energy Research and Applications, 1: 123-34 (2020).
[4] Yilmaz M., Sara O.N., Karsli S.. Performance Evaluation Criteria for Heat Exchangers Based on Second Law Analysis. Exergy, an International Journal, 1: 278-94 (2001).
[5] Bejan A., Kestin J.. Entropy Generation Through Heat and Fluid Flow  (1983).
[6] Bejan A., "Shape and Structure, from Engineering to Nature, Cambridge University Press 2000.
[8] Bejan A., "Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics". John Wiley & Sons 2016.
[9] Aceves-Saborio S., Ranasinghe J., Reistad G., An Extension to the Irreversibility Minimization Analysis applied to Heat Exchangers (1989).
[10] Cengel Y.A., Boles M., "Thermodynamics (In Si Units)". Tata Mcgraw Hill Education Private Limited (2011).
[11] Borgnakke C., Sonntag R.E., "Fundamentals of Thermodynamics", John Wiley & Sons (2020).
[12] Cengel Y.A., Boles M.A., "Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach 6th Editon (SI Units)",
The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., New York (2007).
[13] Moran M.J., Shapiro H.N., Boettner D.D., Bailey M.B., "Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics", John Wiley & Sons (2010).
[14] Bejan A., "Entropy generation through heat and fluid flow". John Wiley & Sons, New York (1982).
[15] Czarnowska L., Litwin W., Stanek W., Selection of Numerical Methods and Their Application to the Thermo-Ecological Life Cycle Cost of Heat Exchanger Components. Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems, 3: 131-9 (2015).
[16] Lewis G.N., Randall M., Pitzer K.S., Brewer L.. "Thermodynamics", Courier Dover Publications (2020).
[17] Bridgman P.W., "The Nature of Thermodynamics", Harvard University Press (2013).
[18] Naseri A., Fazlikhani M., Sadeghzadeh M., Naeimi A., Bidi M., Tabatabaei S.H., Thermodynamic and Exergy Analyses of a Novel Solar-Powered CO2 Transcritical Power Cycle with Recovery of Cryogenic LNG Using Stirling Engines, Renewable Energy Research and Applications, 1: 175-85 (2020).
[19] Salek F., Eskandary Nasrabad A., Naserian M.M., Turbocharged Diesel Engine Power Production Enhancement: Proposing a Novel Thermal-Driven Supercharging System Based on Kalina Cycle, Renewable Energy Research and Applications, 1: 223-234 (2020).
[20] Hussain Z., Rehman Z.U., Abbas T., Smida K., Le Q.H., Abdelmalek Z., et al., Analysis of Bifurcation and Chaos in the Traveling Wave Solution in Optical Fibers Using the Radhakrishnan–Kundu–Lakshmanan Equation. Results in Physics, 55: 107145 (2023).
[21] Kotas T.J., "The Exergy Method of Thermal Plant Analysis", Elsevier (2013).
[22] Kakac S., Liu H., Pramuanjaroenkij A., "Heat Exchangers: Selection, Rating, and Thermal Design", CRC Press (2020).
[23] Rezaei A., Hadibafekr S., Khalilian M., Chitsaz A., Mirzaee I., Shirvani H., A Comprehensive Numerical Study on Using Lobed Cross-Sections in Spiral Heat Exchanger: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Analysis, International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 193: 108464 (2023).
[24] S. Takht Firoozeh, N. Pourmahmoud, M. Khalilian. Two-Tube Heat Exchanger with Variable Groove Angle on the Inner Pipe Surface: Experimental Study. Applied Thermal Engineering. 234: 121274 (2023).
[25] Shoeibi H., Mehrpooya M., Assareh E., Izadi M., Pourfayaz F., Transient Simulation and Exergy Analysis of Heat-Pump Systems Integrated with Solar Compound Parabolic Collector, Iranian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (IJCCE), 41(6): 2121-34 (2022).
[26] Manjunath K., Kaushik S.C., Second Law Thermodynamic Study of Heat Exchangers: A Review, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 40: 348-74 (2014).
[27] Amirhaeri Y., Pourfayaz F., Hadavi H., Kasaeian A., Energy and Exergy Analysis-Based Monthly Co-Optimization of a Poly-Generation System for Power, Heating, Cooling, and Hydrogen Production, Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 148: 8195-221 (2023).
[28] Norouzi N., Bozorgian A., Energy and Exergy Analysis and Optimization of a Pentageneration (Cooling, Heating, Power, Water, and Hydrogen), Iranian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (IJCCE). 42(7): 2355-2371 (2023).
[29] Çengel Y.A., Kanoğlu M., A New Entropy Function to Analyze Isentropic Processes of Ideal Gases with Variable Specific Heats, Entropy, 24746 (2022)
[30] Mehdizadeh-Fard M., Pourfayaz F., Mehrpooya M.A., Kasaeian. Improving Energy Efficiency in a Complex Natural Gas Refinery Using Combined Pinch and Advanced Exergy Analyses, Applied Thermal Engineering, 137: 341-55 (2018)
[32] Beigzadeh M., Pourfayaz F., Ghazvini M., Ahmadi M.H.. Energy and Exergy Analyses of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine Hybrid Systems fed by Different Renewable Biofuels: A Comparative Study, Journal of Cleaner Production, 280 124383 (2021).
[33] Fard M.M., Pourfayaz F.. Advanced Exergy Analysis of Heat Exchanger Network in a Complex Natural Gas Refinery. Journal of Cleaner Production, 206: 670-87 (2019).
[34] Çengel Y.A., Cimbala J.M., Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications, 4e in SI Units. McGraw-Hill Education (2019).
[35] Hashemi M., Pourfayaz F., Mehrpooya M., Energy, Exergy, Exergoeconomic and Sensitivity Analyses
of Modified Claus Process in a Gas Refinery Sulfur Recovery Unit
, Journal of Cleaner Production, 220: 1071-1087 (2019).
[36] Pakzad P., Mehrpooya M., Zaitsev A., Thermodynamic Assessments of a Novel Integrated Process for Producing Liquid Helium and Hydrogen Simultaneously, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 46: 37939-64 (2021).
[37] Pourfayaz F., Imani M., Mehrpooya M., Shirmohammadi R., Process Development and Exergy Analysis of a Novel Hybrid Fuel Cell-Absorption Refrigeration System Utilizing Nanofluid as the Absorbent Liquid, International Journal of Refrigeration, 97 (2019) 31-41.
[38] Mehrpooya M., Pakzad P., Introducing a Hybrid Mechanical–Chemical Energy Storage System: Process Development and Energy/Exergy Analysis, Energy Conversion and Management, 211:  112784 (2020).
[39] Mahmoudi M., Mirzaee I., Khalilian M., Energy and Exergy Study of a Nanofluid-based Solar System Integrated with a Quadruple Effect Absorption Cycle and Thermoelectric Generator, Iranica Journal of Energy & Environment, 15:  80-90 (2024).
[40] Kaushik S., Reddy V.S., Tyagi S., Energy and Exergy Analyses of Thermal Power Plants: A Review, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews., 15: 1857-72 (2011).
[42] Bejan A., Tsatsaronis G., Purpose in Thermodynamics, Energies, 14: 408 (2021).
[45] Azar R.T., Khalilarya S., Jafarmadar S., Ranjbar F., Analysis of Exergy and Total Life Cycle Cost for Segmental and Helical Baffles in a Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchanger, International Journal of Exergy., 20: 269-93 (2016).
[47] K Pitchandi., Design and Analysis of Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger Using Entropy Generation Minimisation. International Journal of Exergy., 15:  276-95 (2014).
[48] Pagliarini G., Barozzi G., Thermal Coupling in Laminar Flow Double-Pipe Heat Exchangers.  (1991).
[49] Sieniutycz S., Tsirlin A.M., Akhremenkov A.A., Minimal Dissipation Conditions of Heat Exchange Systems. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer., 110:  539-44 (2017)
[50] Mohamed H.A., Entropy Generation in Counter Flow Gas to Gas Heat Exchangers, Journal of Heat Transfer, 128: 87-92 (2005).
[51] Jithin K.V., Pradeep A., Heat Transfer Enhancement of Concentric Double-Pipe Heat Exchanger Utilizing Helical Wire Turbulator, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 319-39 (2020).
[52] Durmus A., Heat Transfer and Exergy Loss in a Concentric Heat Exchanger with Snail Entrance, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 9: 303-12 (2002).
[53] Durmuş A.,  Heat Transfer and Exergy Loss in Cut Out Conical Turbulators, Energy Conversion and Management. 45: 785-96 (2004).
[54] Khaled A.A., Enhancement of Heat and Exergy Transfer Inside Double Pipe Heat Exchanger with Conical Tube, International Journal of Exergy, 15: 171-95 (2014).
[55] Ahmadi N., Ashrafi H., Rostami S., Vatankhah R., Investigation of the Effect of Gradual Change of the Inner Tube Geometrical Configuration on the Thermal Performance of the Double-Pipe Heat Exchanger, Iranian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering42(7): 2305-2317 (2023).
[56] Akpinar E.K., Evaluation of Heat Transfer and Exergy Loss in a Concentric Double Pipe Exchanger Equipped with Helical Wires, Energy Conversion and Management, 47: 3473-86 (2006).
[58] Allouache N., Chikh S., Second Law Analysis in a Partly Porous Double Pipe Heat Exchanger, Journal of Applied Mechanics,73: 60-5 (2005).
[59] Cornelissen R.L., Hirs G.G., Exergetic Optimisation of a Heat Exchanger, Energy Conversion and Management, 38: 1567-76 (1997).
[60] Cornelissen R., Hirs G., Thermodynamic Optimisation of a Heat Exchanger, International journal of heat and mass transfer.,  42: 951-60  (1999).
[62] Le Q.H., Neila F., Smida K., Li Z., Abdelmalek Z., Tlili I., pH-Responsive Anticancer Drug Delivery Systems: Insights into the Enhanced Adsorption and Release of DOX Drugs Using Graphene Oxide as a Nanocarrier, Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements., 157: 157-65 (2023).
[66] Bahiraei M., Mazaheri N., Hanooni M.. Employing a Novel Crimped-Spiral Rib Inside a Triple-Tube Heat Exchanger Working with a Nanofluid for Solar Thermal Applications: Irreversibility Characteristics, Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, 52: 102080 (2022).
[67] Elsaid A.M., El-Said E.M.S., Abdelaziz G.B., Sharshir S.W., El-Tahan H.R., Raboo M.F.A., Performance and Exergy Analysis of Different Perforated Rib Designs of Triple Tubes Heat Exchanger Employing Hybrid Nanofluids, International Journal of Thermal Sciences., 168: 107006 (2021).
[68] Gabillet C., Colin C., Fabre J., Experimental Study of Bubble Injection in a Turbulent Boundary Layer. International Journal of Multiphase Flow. 28: 553-78 (2002)
[69] Mahdi Heyhat M., Abdi A., Jafarzad A., Performance Evaluation and Exergy Analysis of a Double Pipe Heat Exchanger Under Air Bubble Injection, Applied Thermal Engineering., 143: 582-93 (2018).
[73] Sahin B., Ust Y., Teke I., Erdem H.H., Performance Analysis and Optimization of Heat Exchangers: A New Thermoeconomic Approach, Applied Thermal Engineering, 30: 104-9 (2010).
[74] Ghazizade-Ahsaee H., Ameri M., Effects of Using Expander And Internal Heat Exchanger on Carbon Dioxide Direct-Expansion Geothermal Heat Pump, Applied Thermal Engineering, 136: 389-407 (2018).
[76] Tavangar T., Siavash Amoli B., Aghajani Delavar M., Numerical Analysis Reliability Control for a Double-Pipe Heat Exchanger with Virtual Entropy Generation Method, Heat Transfer—Asian Research, 48: 1933-45 (2019).
[77] Shen Y., Liu Y., Liu S., Mazhar A.R., A Dynamic Method to Optimize Cascaded Latent Heat Storage Systems with a genetic algorithm: A Case Study of Cylindrical Concentric Heat Exchanger, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 183: 122051 (2022).
[78] Zamani J., Keshavarz A., Genetic Algorithm Optimization for Double Pipe Heat Exchanger PCM Storage System During Charging and Discharging Processes, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer. 146: 106904 (2023).
[79] Dentice d'Accadia M., Fichera A., Sasso M., Vidiri M., Determining the Optimal Configuration of a Heat Exchanger (With A Two-Phase Refrigerant) Using Exergoeconomics, Applied Energy., 71: 191-203 (2002).
[80] Wang Y., Ye Z., Yin X., Song Y., Cao F., Energy, Exergy and Exergoeconomic Evaluation of the Air Source Transcritical CO2 Heat Pump with internal Heat Exchanger for Space Heating, International Journal of Refrigeration, 130: 14-26 (2021).
[81] Saberimoghaddam A., Bahri Rasht Abadi M.M., Thermal Design Considerations and Performance Evaluation of Cryogenic Tube in Tube Heat Exchangers, Iranian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 38(1): 243-53 (2019).
[82] Naphon P., Second Law Analysis on the Heat Transfer of the Horizontal Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 33: 1029-41 (2006).
[83] Bashtani I., Esfahani J.A., ε-NTU Analysis of Turbulent Flow in a Corrugated Double Pipe Heat Exchanger: A Numerical Investigation, Applied Thermal Engineering, 159: 113886 (2019).
[84] Kavak Akpinar E., Bicer Y.. Investigation of Heat Transfer and Exergy Loss in a Concentric Double Pipe Exchanger Equipped with Swirl Generators, International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 44: 598-607 (2005).
[86] Akbarzadeh M., Rashidi S., Keshmiri A., Shokri N., The Optimum Position of Porous Insert for a Double-Pipe Heat Exchanger Based on Entropy Generation and Thermal Analysis, Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 139: 411-26  (2020).
[87] Imteyaz B., Zubair S.M., Effect of Pressure Drop and Longitudinal Conduction on Exergy Destruction in a Concentric-Tube Micro-Fin Tube Heat Exchanger, International Journal of Exergy, 25:  75-91 (2018).
[88] Jafarzad A., Heyhat M.M., Thermal and Exergy Analysis of Air-Nanofluid Bubbly Flow in a Double-Pipe Heat Exchanger, Powder Technology, 372: 563-77 (2020).
[89] Maddah H., Aghayari R., Mirzaee M., Ahmadi M.H., Sadeghzadeh M., Chamkha A.J., Factorial Experimental Design for the Thermal Performance of a Double Pipe Heat Exchanger Using Al2O3-TiO2 Hybrid Nanofluid, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 97: 92-102 (2018).
[90] Nasirzadehroshenin F., Maddah H., Sakhaeinia H., Pourmozafari A., Investigation of Exergy of Double-Pipe Heat Exchanger Using Synthesized Hybrid Nanofluid Developed by Modeling, International Journal of Thermophysics, 40: (2019).
[91] Mokhtari H., Hadiannasab H., Mostafavi M., Ahmadibeni A., Shahriari B., Determination of Optimum Geothermal Rankine Cycle Parameters Utilizing Coaxial Heat Exchanger, Energy, 102: 260-75 (2016).
[94] Haseli Y., Dincer I., Naterer G.F., Optimum Temperatures in a Shell and Tube Condenser with Respect to Exergy, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 51: 2462-70 (2008).
[95] Wang S., Wen J., Li Y., An Experimental Investigation of Heat Transfer Enhancement for a Shell-and-Tube heat Exchanger, Applied Thermal Engineering, 29: 2433-8  (2009).
[96] Petinrin M.O., Bello-Ochende T., Dare A.A., M.O., Oyewola. Entropy Generation Minimisation of Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchanger in Crude Oil Preheat Train Using Firefly Algorithm, Applied Thermal Engineering, 145: 264-76 (2018).
[97] Tahery A.A., Khalilarya S., Jafarmadar S., Effectively Designed NTW Shell-Tube Heat Exchangers with Segmental Baffles Using flow Hydraulic Network Method, Applied Thermal Engineering, 120: 635-44 (2017).
[98] El-Said E.M.S., Abou Al-Sood M.M., Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger with New Segmental Baffles Configurations: A Comparative Experimental Investigation, Applied Thermal Engineering, 150: 803-10 (2019).
[100] Marzouk S.A., Abou Al-Sood M.M., El-Said E.M.S., El-Fakharany M.K., Effect of Wired Nails Circular–Rod Inserts on Tube Side Performance of Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger: Experimental Study, Applied Thermal Engineering, 167: 114696 (2020).
[101] Marzouk S., Abou Al-Sood M., El-Fakharany M.K., El-Said E.M., Thermo-Hydraulic Study in a Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Using Rod Inserts Consisting of Wire-Nails with Air Injection: Experimental Study, International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 106742 (2020).
[102] Feng X., Zhong G., Zhu P., Gu Z., Cumulative Exergy Analysis of Heat Exchanger Production and Heat Exchange Processes, Energy & Fuels, 18: 1194-8 (2004).
[103] Milani Shirvan K., M. Mamourian, J. Abolfazli Esfahani. Experimental Investigation on Thermal Performance and Economic Analysis of Cosine Wave Tube Structure in a Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger, Energy Conversion and Management, 175: 86-98 (2018).
[104] Sajjad R., Hussain M., Khan S.U., Rehman A., Khan M.J., Tlili I., et al. CFD Analysis for Different Nanofluids in fin Prolonged Heat Exchanger for Waste Heat Recovery, South African Journal of Chemical Engineering, 47: 9-14 (2024).
[105] Shirvan K.M., Mamourian M., Esfahani J.A., Experimental Study on Thermal Analysis of a Novel Shell And Tube Heat Exchanger with Corrugated Tubes, Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 138: 1583-606 (2019).
[106] Deslauriers M.-A., Sorin M., Marcos B., Richard M.-A., Retrofit of Low-Temperature Heat Recovery Industrial Systems Using Multiobjective Exergoeconomic Optimization. Energy Conversion and Management, 130: 207-18 (2016).
[107] Leong K.Y., Saidur R., Khairulmaini M., Michael Z., Kamyar A., Heat Transfer and Entropy Analysis of Three Different Types of Heat Exchangers Operated with Nanofluids, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 39: 838-43 (2012).
[108] Wang D., Ali M.A., Sharma K., Almojil S.F., Alizadeh A.a., Alali A.F., et al., Multiphase Numerical Simulation of Exergy Loss and Thermo-Hydraulic Behavior with Environmental Considerations of a Hybrid Nanofluid in a Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchanger with Twisted Tape, Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements, 147: 1-10 (2023).
[109] Zarei A., Seddighi S., Elahi S., Örlü R., Experimental Investigation of the Heat Transfer from the Helical Coil Heat Exchanger Using Bubble Injection for Cold Thermal Energy Storage System, Applied Thermal Engineering, 200: 117559 (2022).
[111] Caglayan H., Caliskan H., Sustainability Assessment of Heat Exchanger Units for Spray Dryers, Energy, 124: 741-51 (2017).
[112] Wang Y., Zhang H., Huai X., Li X., Cai J., Xi W., Exergy Analysis of LBE-Helium Heat Exchanger in the Experimental Cooling Loop Based on Accelerator Driven Sub-Critical Power System, Energy Conversion and Management, 135: 274-80 (2017).
[113] Jamil M.A., Goraya T.S., Shahzad M.W., Zubair S.M., Exergoeconomic Optimization of a Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchanger. Energy Conversion and Management, 226: 113462 (2020)
[114] Guo J., Cheng L., Xu M., Optimization Design of Shell-And-Tube Heat Exchanger by Entropy Generation Minimization and Genetic Algorithm, Applied Thermal Engineering, 29: 2954-60 (2009).
[115] Khan L.A., EL-GHALBAN D., Heat Exchanger Exergoeconomic Lifecycle Cost Optimization, Proceedings of the 3rd IASME/WSEAS International Conference on Energy & Environment, 99-106 (2008).
[116] Khan L.A., El-Ghalban A., Heat Exchanger Exergetic Lifecycle Cost Optimization Using Evolutionary Algorithms. WSEAS Transactions on Heat and Mass Transfer, 3: 125-36 (2008).
[117] Sekulic D., The Second Law Quality of Energy Transformation in a Heat Exchanger. ASME Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 112(2): 295-300 (1990).
[118] Zueco J., Ayala-Miñano S., Exergy Analysis of a Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Using DETHE Software. International Journal of Exergy, 33: 198-213 (2020).
[119] Tahery A.A., Khalilarya S., Jafarmadar S., Effectively Designed Shell‐Tube Heat Exchangers Considering Cost Minimization and Energy Management, Heat Transfer—Asian Research., 46: 1488-98 (2017).
[120] Sadighi Dizaji H., Jafarmadar S., Asaadi S., Experimental Exergy Analysis for Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Made of Corrugated Shell and Corrugated Tube, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science., 81: 475-81 (2017).
[121] Alshamusi Q.K.M., Al-Hayder L.S.J., Alshamsi H.A.H., Applying NSGA-II to Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers: Insights from the Exergetic Optimization Perspective, Journal of Physics: Conference Series, IOP Publishing 2019. p. 012138.
[122] Esfahani M.R., Languri E.M., Exergy Analysis of a Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchanger Using Graphene Ox ide Nanofluids, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 83: 100-6 (2017).
[123] Shah R.K., Skiepko T., Exchanger Performance Behavior through Irreversibility Analysis for 1-2 TEMA Heat Exchangers G. ASME Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 172(12): 1296-1304 (1990).
[124] Baghernejad A., Yaghoubi M., Exergy Analysis of an Integrated Solar Combined Cycle System, Renewable Energy, 35: 2157-64 (2010).
[125] Bahiraei M., Naseri M., Monavari A., Irreversibility Features of a Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchanger Fitted with Novel Trapezoidal Oblique Baffles: Application of a Nanofluid with Different Particle Shapes, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 126: 105352 (2021).