Parametric Study of Lactic Acid Extraction Using Tri-N-Octyl Amine and Hexane through Emulsion Liquid Membrane

Document Type : Research Article


1 Research Laboratory-III, Department of Chemical Engineering, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology, Longowal, INDIA

2 Biotechnology Research Laboratory, Department of Food Engineering and Technology, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology, Longowal, INDIA

3 Department of Chemical Global Group of Institutes Amritsar, Punjab, INDIA


In this current research work, a detailed parametric study has been reported for the Lactic Acid (LA) extraction from the aqueous solution through Emulsion Liquid Membrane (ELM). A designed ELM loaded with tri-n-octyl amine (as a carrier), oleyl alcohol (as a membrane modifier), cyclohexanone (to reduce water co-transportation), hexane (as a diluent), sodium carbonate (as an internal stripping phase reagent), and span 80 (as an emulsifying agent) was formulated and prepared through mechanical agitation mode. The effect of operating conditions of various process parameters affecting the LA extraction efficiency through ELM were examined and elucidated in detail. The results have shown that more than 95±1.5% of LA were successfully extracted within 20 min at the optimum conditions of 0.05 [M] LA concentration, 2000 rpm emulsification speed, 2.0 (v/v) treat ratio, 4% (v/v) span 80 concentration, 1.0 (v/v) phase ratio, 200 rpm stirring speed, 0.25 [M] stripping phase concentration ( ), 2% (v/v) cyclohexanone, 1 [N] sulphuric acid concentration, and TOA concentration: 10 %(v/v). Hence, it could be concluded that these optimized ELM constituents as well as optimized ranges of various desired process parameters may be considered for efficient ELM formulation and LA extraction.


Main Subjects

[1] Komesu A., Oliveira J.A.R.D., Martins L.H.D.S., Maciel M.R.W., Maciel F.R., Lactic Acid Production to Purification: A Review, Bio. Res., 12: 4364-4383 (2017).
[2] Kumar⁠ A., Thakur⁠⁠ A., Panesar⁠ P.S., Lactic Acid and Its Separation and Purification Techniques: A Review, Rev. Environ. Sci. Biotechnol., 18: 823-853 (2019).
[3] Camesasca L., Andrésde Mattos J., Vila E., Cebreiros F., Lareo C., Lactic Acid Production by Carnobacterium Sp. Isolated from A Maritime Antarctic Lake Using Eucalyptus Enzymatic Hydrolysate, Biotechnol. Rep., 31:e00643 (2021).
[4] Daful A.G., Haigh K., Vaskan P., Gorgens J.F., Environmental Impact Assessment of Lignocellulosic Lactic Acid Production: Integrated with Existing Sugar Mills, Food Bio. Prod.  Process, 99: 58-70 (2016).
[5] Thummarungsan N., Pattavarakorn D., Sirivat A., Softened and Flexible Biodegradable Poly (Lactic Acid) and Its Electromechanical Properties for Actuator Application, J. Mech. Beh. Biomed. Mate., 64: 31-42 (2016).
[6] Pradhan N., Giuliana d’Ippolito Dipasquale L., Esposito G., Panico A., Lens P.N.L., Fontana A., Simultaneous Synthesis of Lactic Acid and Hydrogen from Sugars Via Capnophilic Lactic Fermentation by Thermotoga Neapolitana Cf Capnolactica, Biomass Bioene., 125C: 17-22 (2019).
[7] Vasmara C., Marchetti R., Carminati D., Wastewater from The Production of Lactic Acid Bacteria as Feedstock in Anaerobic Digestion, Energy, 229: 120740 (2021).
[9] Campos J., Bao J., Lidén G., Optically Pure Lactic Acid Production from Softwood-Derived Mannose by Pediococcus Acidilactici, J. Biotechnol., 335: 1-8 (2021).
[10] Liaud N., Rosso M.N., Fabre N., Crapart S., Herpoël-Gimbert I., Sigoillot J.C., Raouche S., Levasseur A.,   L-lactic Acid Production by Aspergillus Brasiliensis Overexpressing The Heterologous Ldha Gene from Rhizopus Oryzae, Microbial Cell Factories, 14(66): 1-9 (2015).
[11] Jiang F., Yan D., Lin J., Kong H., Yao Q., Implantation of Multiscale Silk Fibers on Poly (Lactic Acid) Fibrous Membrane for Biomedical Applications, Materi. Today Chem., 21: 100494 (2021).
[12] Garzon C.S.L., Straathof A.J.J., Recovery of Carboxylic Acids Produced by Fermentation, Biotechnol. Adv., 32: 873-904 (2014).
[13] Tang J., Wanga X., Hua Y., Zhang Y., Li Y., Lactic Acid Fermentation from Food Waste with Indigenous Microbiota: Effects of Ph, Temperature and High OLR, Waste Manag., 52: 278-285 (2016).
[14] Min D.J., Choi K.H., Chang Y.K., Kim J.H., Effect of Operating Parameters on Precipitation for Recovery of Lactic Acid from Calcium Lactate Fermentation Broth, Kor. J. Chem. Eng., 28: 1969-1974 (2011).
[15] Delgado J.A., Águeda V.I., Uguina M.A., García A., Matarredona J., Moral R., Modeling of The Separation of Lactic Acid from an Aqueous Mixture by Adsorption on Polyvinylpyridine Resin and Desorption with Methanol, Sep. Purif. Technol., 200: 307-317 (2018).
[16] Roque L., Escudero I., Benito J.M., Lactic Acid Recovery by Microfiltration Using Niosomes as Extraction Agents, Sep. Purif. Technol., 151: 1-13 (2015).
[17] Baral P., Pundir A., Kurmi A., Singh R., Kumar V., Agrawal D., Salting-out Assisted Solvent Extraction of L (+) Lactic Acid Obtained After Fermentation of Sugarcane Bagasse Hydrolysate, Sep. Purif. Technol., 269: 118788 (2021).
[22] Anarakdim K., Matos M., Cambiella A., Senhadji-Kebiche O, Gutierrez G., Effect of Temperature on The Heat Treatment to Recover Green Solvent from Emulsion Liquid Membranes Used in The Extraction of Cr (VI), Chem. Eng. Processing: Process Intensif., 158: 108178 (2020).
[24] Ahmad A.L., Buddin M.M.H.S., Ooi B.S., Kusumastuti A., Utilization of Environmentally Benign Emulsion Liquid Membrane (ELM) for Cadmium Extraction from Aqueous Solution,
J. Water Process Eng., 15: 26-30 (2017).
[25] Kumar⁠ A., Thakur⁠⁠ A., ⁠ Panesar⁠ P.S., A Review on Emulsion Liquid Membrane (ELM) for the Treatment of Various Industrial Effluent Streams, Rev. Environ. Sci. Biotechnol., 18: 153-182 (2019).
[27] Anitha M., Ambare D.N., Singh D.K., Singh H., Mohapatra P.K., Extraction of Neodymium from Nitric Acid Feed Solutions Using an Emulsion Liquid Membrane Containing TOPO and DNPPA as the Carrier Extractants, Chem. Eng. Res. Des., 98: 89-95 (2015).
[28] Khadivi M., Javanbakht V., Emulsion Ionic Liquid Membrane Using Edible Paraffin Oil for Lead Removal from Aqueous Solutions, J. Mol. Liq., 319: 114137 (2020).
[29] Kumar A., Thakur A., Panesar P.S., Role of Operating Process Parameters on Stability Performance of Green Emulsion Liquid Membrane Based on Rice Bran Oil, Theor. Found. Chem. Eng., 55: 534-544 (2021).
[30] Kishore G., Karthik A., Gopal S.V., Kumar A.R., Bhat M., Udupa N., Development of RP-HPLC Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Lactic Acid and Glycolic Acid, Der Pharma Chem., 5: 335-340 (2013).
[31] Yildiz Y., Manzak A., Tutkun O., Synergistic Extraction of Cobalt and Nickel Ions by Supported Liquid Membranes with A Mixture of TIOA and TBP, Desalani. Water Treat., 53(5): 1246-1253 (2015).
[32] Rahman H.A., Jusoh N., Othman N., Rosly M.B., Sulaiman R.N.R., Noah N.F.M., Green Formulation for Synthetic Dye Extraction Using Synergistic Mixture of Acid-Base Extractant, Sep. Purif. Technol., 209: 293-300 (2019).
[33] Daas A., Hamadaoui Q., Extraction of Anionic Dye from Aqueous Solutions by Emulsion Liquid Membrane, J. Hazard. Mater., 178: 973-981 (2010).
[34] Manzak A., Tutkun, O., The Extraction of Lactic Acid by Emulsion Type of Liquid Membranes Using Alamine336 in Escaid 100, Can. J. Chem. Eng., 89: 1458-1463 (2011).
[35] Chanukya B.S., Kumar M., Rastogi N.K., Optimization of Lactic Acid Pertraction Using Liquid Emulsion Membranes by Response Surface Methodology, Sep. Purif. Technol., 111: 1-8 (2013).
[36] Yankov D., Molinier J., Albet J., Malmary G., Kyuchoukov G., Lactic Acid Extraction from Aqueous Solutions with Tri-N-Octylamine Dissolved in Decanol and Dodecane, Biochem. Eng. J., 21: 63-71 (2004).
[37] Dâas A., Hamdaoui, Q., Removal of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs Ibuprofen and Ketoprofen from Water by Emulsion Liquid Membrane, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int., 21:2154-2164 (2014).
[38] Lee S.C., Extraction of Succinic Acid from Simulated Media by Emulsion Liquid Membranes, J. Membr. Sci., 381: 237-243 (2011).
[39] Ng Y.S., Jayakumar N.S., Hashim M.A., Performance Evaluation of Organic Emulsion Liquid Membrane on Phenol Removal, J. Hazard. Mater., 184: 255-260 (2010).
[40] Srivastava A., Bhagat A., Sharma U., Dohare R.J., Singh K., Upadhyaya S., Comparative Study of Arsenic (V) Removal from Aqueous Solution Using Aliquat-336 and 2-Ethyl Hexanol through Emulsion Liquid Membrane, J. Water Process Eng., 16: 64-68 (2017).
[43] Malik M.A., Hashim M.A., Nabi F., Extraction of Metal Ions by ELM Separation Technology, J. Disper. Sci. Technol., 33: 346-356 (2012).
[44] Teresa A.M.R., Ondina M.F.F., Shiva A., Ferreira M.L., Rosinda M.C.I., Remigio M., Jorge M.R.C., Removal of Phenols from aqueous Solutions by Emulsion Liquid Membranes, J. Hazard Mater., 192: 986-994 (2011).
[45] Kumar⁠ A., Thakur⁠⁠ ⁠A., Panesar P.S., Lactic Acid Extraction Using Environmentally Benign Green Emulsion Ionic Liquid Membrane, J. Clean. Prod., 181: 574-583 (2018).
[46] Jusoh N., Othman N., Rosly M.B., Extraction and Recovery of Organic Compounds from Aqueous Solution Using Emulsion Liquid Membrane Process, Materials Today Proceed., 1-6 (2021).
[47] Keshav A., Norge P., Wasewar K.L., Reactive Extraction of Citric Acid Using Tri-N-Octylamine in Nontoxic Natural Diluents: Part 1-Equilibrium Studies from Aqueous Solutions, Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol., 167: 197-213 (2012).
[48] Sujatha S., Rajamohan N., Anbazhagan S., Vanithasri M., Rajasimman M., Extraction of Nickel Using a Green Emulsion Liquid Membrane - Process Intensification, Parameter Optimization and Artificial Neural Network Modeling, Chem. Eng. Process: Process Intensif., 165: 108444 (2021).
[49] Naoh N.F.M., Othman N. Jusoh N., Highly Selective Transport of Palladium from Electroplating Wastewater Using Emulsion Liquid Membrane Process, J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. Eng., 64: 134-141 (2016).
[50] Garavand F., Razavi S.H., Cacciotti I., Synchronized Extraction and Purification of L-Lactic Acid from Fermentation Broth by Emulsion Liquid Membrane Technique, J. Disper. Sci. Technol., 39: 1291-1299 (2018).
[51] Goyal R.K., Jayakumar N.S., Hashim M.A., Chromium Removal by Emulsion Liquid Membrane Using [BMIM]+ [Ntf2] as Stabilizer and TOMAC as Extractant, Desalination, 278: 50-56 (2011).
[52] Benderrag A., Haddou B., Daaou M., Benkhedja H., Bounaceur B., Kameche M., Experimental and Modeling Studies on Cd (II) Ions Extraction by Emulsion Liquid Membrane Using Triton X-100 as Biodegradable Surfactant, J. Environ. Chem. Eng., 7: 103166 (2019).
[53] Blahusiak M., Martak J., Miranda F., Schlosser S., Teixeira J.A., Effect of Viscosity of a Liquid Membrane Containing Oleyl Alcohol on the Pertraction of Butyric Acid, Chem. Pap., 67: 1560-1568 (2013).