Utilization of Al/SiO2 Reaction in Self-Heating Cylinder to Warm up Beverages

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Food Science and Technology, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, I.R. IRAN

2 Veterinary Department, Semnan University, Semnan, I.R. IRAN


With the advancement of technology, food packaging has gradually changed to make changes for the consumer's convenience. Self-heating packages allow customers to heat drinks by using exothermic reactions. In this study, a cylinder made of 316L stainless steel was used to heat 200 mL tea and 200 mL low-fat pasteurized milk using silicon dioxide and aluminum reactions. For this purpose, after pouring the reactive material and closing the cylinder lid, the heating process began by placing it inside the beverage. As a result, the temperature inside the cylinder after 82 s (1 minute and 22 s) increased from 28.1 °C to 122.6 °C and this amount of heat led to an increase in the temperature of the tea from 26.3 °C to 40.9 °C in 277 s (4 min and 37 s). Also, after 563 s (9 min and 23 s), the milk temperature increased from 24.8 °C to 38.1 °C. Then, the heating of the cylinder containing this reaction inside the mentioned beverages was simulated and modeled using COMSOL Multiphysics software. It has been determined that the experimental data and simulated models were properly fitted.


Main Subjects

[2] Mohammadian F., Investigation of Heat Generation Process in Self-Heating Packages, Packag. Sci. Technol. 4(13): 44 (2013).
[3] Majid I., Nayik G.A., Dar S.M., Nanda V., Novel Food Packaging Technologies: Innovations and Future Prospective, J. Saudi Soc. Agric. Sci. 17(4): 454-62 (2018).
[4] Coffey, B., Derossi, M., Kwiatkowski, K.C., Ford, B.C., HeatGenie, Inc., High Efficiency Self-Heating Containers, United States Patent US 10,058,209 (2018).
[5] Brody A.L., Packaging-Heating Up (and Cooling Off) Food and Beverage Packaging, Food Technol.-Chicago. 66(4): 81 (2012).
[6] Coffey, B., Kwiatkowski, K.C. and Bookout, T., HeatGenie Inc., Package Heating Device and Chemical Compositions for Use Therewith, United States Patent US 8,555,870 (2013).
[7] Huselton D., inventor, System and Method for Heating Items, United States Patent Application US 14/641,312 (2015).
[8] West J.B., Secker R.E., Kwiatkowski K.C., inventors; HeatGenie Inc, assignee, Self-Heating Package Systems, United States Patent US 11,009,265 (2021).
[9] Microsoft Corporation, Microsoft Excel (2019).
[10] Ho S.H., Rahman M.M., Sunol A.K., Analysis of Thermal Response of a Food Self-Heating System, Appl. Therm. Eng. 30(14-15): 2109-15 (2010).
[11] COMSOL AB., COMSOL Multiphysics® v. 5.5, Stockholm, Sweden (2019).
[12] Comsol AB., Comsol Multiphysics-Heat Transfer Module, User’s Guide, Version 5.4. (2018).
[13] Bahrami M., Steady Conduction Heat Transfer, ENSC 388 (F09), Retrieved 2021, July 22 (2009).
[15] Coffey B., Schropp Jr D.R., Kwiatkowski K.C., inventors; HeatGenie Inc, assignee, Solid-State Thermite Composition Based Heating Device, United States Patent US 8,864,924 (2014).
[16] Wida E.C., La Colombe Launched a Self-Heating Can of Coffee, Retrieved 2020, September 28 (2020).
[17] Defrin R., Dekel‐Steinkeller M., Urca G., Some Like It Hot: Preference for Temperature and Pungency Consumption is Associated with Sensitivity to Noxious Heat, Eur. J. Pain. 25(2): 473-84 (2021).
[18] Asghar M., Why Does Milk Boil Faster than Water, Retrieved 2021, August 19 (2021).
[19] Helmenstine A.M., What Is the Boiling Point of Milk, Retrieved 2021, August 19 (2019).  
 [20] Махов С.В., Бичурина И.А., Решетов В.А., Теоретический и экспериментальный анализ экзотермических реакций для химической генерации тепла, Фундаментальные и прикладные исследования: проблемы и результаты, (15): 161-165 (2014).
[21] Aleksandrov Y.A., Tsyganova E.I., Pisarev A.L., Reaction of Aluminum with Dilute Aqueous NaOH Solutions, Russ. J. Gen. Chem., 73(5) (2003).
[22] Li M., Ming X.Q., Probe into Measures to Increase Recovery in Vanadium Aluminium Alloy Smelting, Ferro-alloys, 4(11) (2000).
[23] Apakashev R.A., Davydov S.Y., Study of the Interaction of Molten Aluminum with the Contact Surface of a Quartz Refractory, Refract. Ind. Ceram. 56(2):194-6 (2015).