Colorimetric Determination of Diazinon in Environmental Water Samples Based on Sensitive Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance of Silver Nanoparticles

Document Type : Research Article


1 Phase Separation & FIA Lab., Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, I.R. IRAN

2 Department of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Clean Technologies, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Research Center of Iran, Tehran, I.R. IRAN


Determination of organophosphorus pesticide diazinon (DZ) in water was described based on localized surface plasmon resonance of citrate-capped silver nanoparticles (CC-Ag NPs) in this study. The surface plasmon resonance band was scanned by UV–visible spectrophotometer and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) was employed to reveal the interaction, surface characteristics, and particle size. With adding DZ to the CC-Ag NPs, it was adsorbed onto silver nano-spheres in an aqueous solution and the color of the silver nanoparticles changed from light yellow to orange or brown depending on DZ concentration. As a result of aggregation, the absorption peak of silver nanoparticles around 393 nm decreased and a new peak appeared in 520 nm. The wavelength and intensity shifts were characteristic of the pesticide structure and concentration, respectively. The interaction between the sensor and the pesticide was a result of the soft metal surface binding to the soft sulfur atom of the pesticide. Under optimized conditions, a linear relationship between DZ concentration and the absorbance ratio of A520/A393 and the limit of detection was found in the range of 2- 80 µM and 0.12 µM, respectively. The present method has good repeatability reproducibility and good stability. The proposed method was used for real water samples and the results are in good agreement with other methods of analysis.


Main Subjects

[1] Dissanayake N.M., Arachchilage J.S., Samuels T.A., Obare S.O., Highly Sensitive Plasmonic Metal Nanoparticle-Based Sensors for the Detection of Organophosphorus Pesticides, Talanta, 200: 218-227 (2019).
[2] Shoeibi S., Moazzami Goudarzi I., Rastegar H., Janat B., Sadeghi N., Hajimahmoodi M., Amirahmadi M., Spiked Calibration Curve: A Valid Method for Simultaneous Analysis of Pesticides in Melon Using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS)., Iran. J. Chem. Chem. Eng. (IJCCE), 33(3): 21-27 (2014).
[6] Tripathy V., Saha A., Patel D.J., Basak B.B., Shah P.G., Kumar J., Validation of a QuEChERS-Based Gas Chromatographic Method for Analysis of Pesticide Residues in Cassia Angustifolia (senna), J. Environ. Sci. Health B., 51(8): 508–518 (2016).
[7] Yasien S., Iqbal M.M., Javed M., Iqbal Sh., Ahmad Z., Tamam N., Nadeem S., Elkaeed E.B., Alzhrani R.M., Awwad N.S., Ibrahium H.A., Hakami R.A., Quantification of Multi-Class Pesticides in Stomach Contents and Milk by Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry with Liquid Extraction Method, Arab. J. Chem., 15: 103937 (2022).
[8] Mane P.C., Shinde M.D., Varma S., Chaudhari B.P., Fatehmulla A., Shahabuddin M., Amalnerkar D.P., Aldhafiri A.M., Chaudhari R.D., Highly Sensitive Label-Free Bio-Interfacial Colorimetric Sensor Based on Silk Fibroin-Gold Nanocomposite for Facile Detection of Chlorpyrifos Pesticide. Sci. Rep., 10: 4198 (2020).
[9] Azimi H., Ahmadi S.H., Manafi M.R., Mousavi S.H.H., Najafi M., Development of a Simple and Sensitive Method for Determination Low Trace of Nickel by Local Surface Plasmon Resonance of Citrate Capped Silver Nanoparticles, J. Optoelectron. Nanostruc., 6(23):     (2021).
[10] Momeni M., Asadi S., Shanbedi M., Antimicrobial Effect of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized with Bougainvillea Glabra Extract on Staphylococcus Aureus and Escherichia Coli., Iran. J. Chem. Chem. Eng. (IJCCE), 40(2): 395-4052 (2021).
[11] He L.B., Zhang L., Tang L.P., Sun J., Zhang Q.B., Sun L.T., Novel Behaviors/Properties of Nanometals Induced by Surface Effects, Mater. Today Nano., 8-21 (2018).
[12] Khodaveisi J., Haji Shabani A.M., Dadfarnia S., Saberi D., A Novel Sensor for Determination of Naproxen Based on Change in Localized Surface Plasmon Peak of Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles. Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc.., 179: 11-16 (2017).
[13] Bamdad F., Khorram F., Samet M., Bamdad K.M., Sangi R., Allahbakhshi F., Spectrophotometric Determination of l-Cysteine by Using Polyvinylpyrrolidone-Stabilized Silver Nanoparticles in the Presence of Barium Ions, Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc, 161: 52-57 (2016).
[14] Khodaveisi J., Dadfarnia S., Haji Shabani A.M., Saberi D., Colorimetric Determination of Nabumetone Based on Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance of Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles as a Chemical Sensor, Sens. Actuators B Chem., 239: 1300–1306 (2017).
[15] Azimi H., Ahmadi S.H., Manafi M.R., Mousavi S.H.H., Najafi M., Development of an Analytical Method for the Determination of Lead Based on Local Surface Plasmon Resonance of Silver Nanoparticles, Quím. Nova., 43(6): 760-764 (2020).
[17] Ali S., Chen X., Shi W., Huang G., Yuan L.M., Meng L., Chen S., Zhonghao X., Chen X., Recent Advances in Silver and Gold Nanoparticles- Based Colorimetric Sensors for Heavy Metal Ions Detection: A Review. Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem., (2021).
[18] Singh R., Mehra R., Walia A., Gupta S., Chawla P., Kumar H., Thakur A., Kaushik A., Kumar R.N., Colorimetric Sensing Approaches Based on Silver Nanoparticles Aggregation for Determination of Toxic Metal Ions in Water Sample: A Review, Intl. J. Environ. Anal. Chem., (2021).
[20] Loiseau A., Zhang L., Hu D., Salmain M., Mazouzi Y., Flack R., Liedberg B., Boujday S., Core–Shell Gold/Silver Nanoparticles for Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance- Based Naked-Eye Toxin Biosensing, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 50: 46462-46471 (2019).
[21] Mauriz E., Recent Progress in Plasmonic Biosensing Schemes for Virus Detection, Sensors, 20(17): 4745 (2020).
[22] Singh R., Thakur P., Thakur A., Kumar H., Chawla P., Rohit J.V., Kaushik R., Kumar N., Colorimetric Sensing Approaches of Surface-Modified Gold and Silver Nanoparticles for Detection of Residual Pesticides: A Review, Intl. J. Environ. Anal. Chem., 101(15): 3006-3022 (2021).
[23] Mirghafouri M.R., Abbasi-Moayed S., Ghasemi F., Hormozi-Nezhad M.R., Nanoplasmonic Sensor Array for the Detection and Discrimination of Pesticide Residues in Citrus Fruits, Anal. Methods, 12(48): 5877-5884 (2020).
[26] Koushkestani M., Abbasi-Moayed S., Ghasemi F., Mahdavi V., Hormozi-Nezhad M.R., Simultaneous Detection and Identification of Thiometon, Phosalone, and Prothioconazole Pesticides Using a Nanoplasmonic Sensor Array., Food and Chem. Toxicol., 151: 112109 (2021).
[27] Hamedi S., Shojaosadati S A., Shokrollahzadeh S., HashemiNajaf Abadi S., Controlled Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Culture Supernatant of Filamentous Fungus., Iran. J. Chem. Chem. Eng. (IJCCE), 36(5): 33-42 (2017).
[29] Pearson R.G., Hard and Soft Acids and Bases. Survey Prog, Chem., 5: 1-52 (1969).
[30] Lin T.J., Huang K.T., Liu C.Y., Determination of Organophosphorous Pesticides by a Novel Biosensor Based on Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance. Biosens. Bioelectron., 22: 513–518 (2006).
[31] Bian S.W., Mudunkotuwa I.A., Rupasinghe T., Grassian V.H., Aggregation and Dissolution of 4 nm ZnO Nanoparticles in Aqueous Environments: Influence of pH, Ionic Strength, Size, and Adsorption of Humic Acid, Langmuir, 27(10): 6059–6068 (2011).
[32] Shrivastava P., Jain V.K., Nagpal S., Nanoparticle Intervention for Heavy Metal Detection: A Review. Environ. Nanotechnol. Monit. Manag., 17: 100667 (2022).
[33] Wong K.K., Lee C.K., Low K.S., Haron M.J., Removal of Cu and Pb by Tartaric Acid Modified Rice Husk from Aqueous Solutions, Chemosphere, 50: 23-28 (2003).
[34] Ezra L., O'Dell Z.J., Hui J., Riley K.R., Emerging Investigator Series: Quantifying Silver Nanoparticle Aggregation Kinetics in Real-Time Using Particle Impact Voltammetry Coupled with UV-Vis Spectroscopy, Environ. Sci. Nano., 9:     -       (2020).
[35] Manbohi A., Ahmadi S.H., Sensitive and Selective Detection of Dopamine Using Electrochemical Microfluidic Paper-Based Analytical Nanosensor. Sens. Bio-Sens. Res., 23: 100270684–691 (2019).
[36] El-Aleem A.A., Rezk M.R., Khalile S.M., El-Naggar O.K., Spectrophotometric Determination of Some Organophosphorus Pesticides Based on Reaction with Cerium (IV) Sulfate, Intl. J. Sci. Res. Sci. and Technol., 2(6): 79-86 (2016).
[37] Abdi S., Sobhan Ardakani S., Determination of Benomyl and Diazinon Residues in Strawberry and Its Related Health Implications, Razi J. Med. Sci., 25(11): 42-51 (2019).
[38] Cao H., Nam J., Harmon H.J., Bronson D.H., Spectrophotometric Detection of Organophosphate Diazinon by Porphyrin Solution and Porphyrin-Dyed Cotton Fabric, Dyes Pigm., 74(1): 176-178 (2007).
[39] Sobhanardakani S., Residual Levels of Diazinon and Benomyl on Greenhouse Mushrooms, Iran. J. Toxicol., 9(29): 1307-1311 (2015).
[40] Khalijian A., Sobhan Ardakani S., Cheraghi M., Investigation of Diazinon Residue in Groundwater Resources of Hamedan-Bahar Plain in 2014, J. Res. Environ. Health, 2(3): 203-211 (2016).
 [41] Karyab H., Mahvi A.H., Nazmara, Sh., Bahojb A., Determination of Water Sources Contamination to Diazinon and Malathion and Spatial Pollution Patterns in Qazvin, Iran, Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 90: 126-131 (2013).