Modeling of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction, Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity, Rheological Aspects, and Biological Properties of “Barhang-e-Kabir” Mucilage

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Animal Science and Food Technology, Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, Mollasani, I.R. IRAN

2 Applied Microbiology Research Center, Systems Biology and Poisonings Institute, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, I.R. IRAN


In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to investigate the influence of independent process parameters including water to seed ratio (g/g), temperature (°C), time (min), and ultrasonic intensity (%) on the extraction yield of “Barhang-e-Kabir”. Chemical composition, monosaccharide composition (using HPAEC-PAD), molecular conformation, molecular weight properties, Surface tension, ζ-potential, particle size distribution, Fourier Transform InfraRed (FT-IR) spectroscopy, color measurement, Total Phenol Content (TPC), Total Flavonoid Content (TFC), Antioxidant Activity (AA), antimicrobial and dilute-solution and steady-state behavior were evaluated. The optimum condition to obtain maximum extraction yield (13.1 %) was extraction temperature 70 ᵒC, extraction time 40 min, water to seed ratio of 1:10, and ultrasonic power of 90 %. Plantago major gum (PMG) had 89.24% carbohydrate, 4.53% ash, 4.11% moisture, and 2.12% protein. Viscometric molecular weight and average molecular weight were found to be 1.13 ×105 g/mol and 9.9 ×105 g/mol, respectively. The intrinsic viscosity of PMG was 12.56 dL/g in deionized water at 25 ºC. Steady shear measurement demonstrated that PMG is a shear-thinning fluid with high viscosity at low concentration. TPC, TFC and AA (IC50) tests of PMG showed 89.80 ± 1.23 mg GAE/g dry sample, 123.25 ± 1.32 mg g−1dry sample, and 470.45 ± 0.35 µg/mL, respectively. Prevention of linoleic acid oxidation in the system of ß-Carotene-linoleic acid was equal to 32.45 %. The results showed that Streptococcus pyogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are the most sensitive and highest resistance strain to PMG, respectively.


Main Subjects

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