Solar Light-Induced Decolorization of Safranin O Using Unmodified and Gold-Modified Semiconductor Oxides

Document Type : Research Article


Faculty of Biofarming, Megatrend University, Maršala Tita 39, 24300 Bačka Topola, SERBIA


Unmodified and gold-modified semiconductor oxides were used for the complete decolorization of non-buffered aqueous safranin O solutions. Photocatalytic properties of commercially available ZnO and TiO2 (anatase nanopowder) were compared with those of gold-modified ZnO (Au/ZnO). Au/ZnO was obtained from commercial ZnO powder through direct current sputter coating. ZnO-based catalysts show significantly higher decolorization power in comparison with TiO2. Au/ZnO show slightly higher activity than unmodified ZnO. Decolorization of safranin O using Au/ZnO was additionally tested in different types of mineral water. The decolorization efficiency in mineral waters was negatively correlated with the dry residue content (180 °C) and in all cases was less than in distilled water. The inhibiting effect of hydrogen carbonate was additionally investigated.


Main Subjects

[1] Martínez-Huitle C.A., Brillas E., Decontamination of Wastewaters Containing Synthetic Organic Dyes by Electrochemical Methods: A General Review, Appl. Catal. B: Environ., 87: 105-145 (2009).
[2] Chan S.H.S., Wu T.Y., Juan J.C., Teh C.Y., Recent Developments of Metal Oxide Semiconductors as Photocatalysts in Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) for Treatment of Dye Waste-Water, J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol., 86: 1130-1158 (2011).
[5] Ameta P., Kumar A., Ameta R., Malkani R.K., A Comparative Study of Photocatalytic Activity of Some Coloured Semiconducting Oxides, Iran. J. Chem. Chem. Eng. (IJCCE), 29: 43-48 (2010).
[6] Kamat P.V., Photochemistry on Nonreactive and Reactive (semiconductor) Surfaces, Chem. Rev., 93: 267-300 (1993). 
[7] Rotanberger G., Moser J., Grätzel M., Serpone N., Sharma D.K., Charge Carrier Trapping and Recombination Dynamics in Small Semiconductor Particles, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 107: 8054-8059 (1985).
[8] Kamat P.V., Photophysical, Photochemical and Photocatalytic Aspects of Metal Nanoparticles, J. Phys. Chem. B, 106: 7729-7744 (2002).
[9] Kamat P.V., Photoinduced Transformations in Semiconductor−Metal Nanocomposite Assemblies, Pure Appl. Chem., 74: 1693-1706 (2002).
[10] Rajeshwar K., de Tacconi N.R., Chenthamarakshan C.R., Semiconductor-based Composite Materials: Preparation, Properties, and Performance, Chem. Mater., 13: 2765-2782 (2001).
[12] Chen P.-K., Lee G.-J., Anandan S., Wu J.J., Synthesis of ZnO and Au Tetheird ZnO Pyramid-Like Microflower for Photocatalytic Degradation of Orange II, Mater. Sci. Eng., 177: 190-196 (2012).
[13] Chen C., Lu Y., He H., Wu K., Ye Z., One-Step Synthesis of Flower-Like Au-ZnO Microstructures at Room Temperature and Their Photocatalytic Properties, Appl. Phys. A, 110: 47-53 (2013).
[14] Chiou J.W., Ray S.C., Tsai H.M., Pao C.W., Chien F.Z., Pong W.F., Tseng C.H., Wu J.J., Tsai M.-H., Chen C.-H., Lin H.J., Lee J.F., Guo J.-H., Correlation between Electronic Structures and Photocatalytic Activities of Nanocrystalline-(Au, Ag, and Pt) Particles on teh Surface of ZnO Nanorods, J. Phys. Chem. C, 115: 2650-2655 (2011).
[15] Georgekutty R., Seery M.K., Pillai S.C., A Highly Efficient Ag-ZnO Photocatalyst: Synthesis, Properties, and Mechanism, J. Phys. Chem. C, 112: 13563-13570 (2008).
[16] Gouvêa C.A.K., Wypych F., Morales S.G., Durán N., Peralta-Zamora P., Semiconductor-Assisted Photodegradation of Lignin, dye, and Kraft Effluent by Ag-Doped ZnO, Chemosphere, 40: 427-432 (2000).
[19] Li P., Wei Z., Wu T., Peng Q., Li Y., Au-ZnO Hybrid Nanopyramids and Their Photocatalytic Properties, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 133: 5660-5663 (2011).
[20] Sinha G., Depero L.E., Alessandri me., Recyclable SERS Substrates Based on Au-Coated ZnO Nanorods, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 3: 2557-2563 (2011).
[21] Sun L., Shao D., Song Z., Shan C., Zhang Z., Li B., Shen D., Glod Nanoparticles Modified ZnO Nanorods with Improved Photocatalytic Activity, J. Colloid. Interf. Sci., 363: 175-181 (2011).
[22] Tan T., Li Y., Liu Y., Wang B., Song X., Li E., Wang H., Ya H., Two-step Preparation of Ag/Tetrapod-like ZnO with Photocatalytic Activity by Thermal Evaporation and Sputtering, Mater. Chem. Phys., 111: 305-308 (2008).
[23] Thongsuriwong K., Amornpitoksuk P., Suwanboon S., Photocatalytic and AntibacterialActivities of
Ag-Doped ZnO Thin Films Prepared by a Sol-Gel Dip-Coating Method
, J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol., 62: 304-312 (2012).
[24] Wang J., Fan X.M., Zhou Z.W., Tian K., Preparation of Ag Nanoparticles Coated Tetrapod-Like ZnO Whisker Photocatalysts Using Photoreduction, Mater. Sci. Eng. B, 176: 978-983 (2011).
[25] Wang J., Hu Q., Li Z., Guo J., Li Y., Microwave-Assisted Synthesis and Photocatalytic Performance of Ag-Doped Hierarchical ZnO Architectures, Mater. Lett., 79: 277-280 (2012).
[26] Whang T.-J., Hsieh M.-T., Chen H.-H., Visible-Light Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue with Laser-Induced Ag/ZnO Nanoparticles, Appl. Surf. Sci., 258: 2796-2801 (2012).
[27] Wu J.-J., Tseng C.-H., Photocatalytic Properties of nc-Au/ZnO Nanorod Composites, Appl. Catal. B: Environ., 66: 51-57 (2006).
[29] Xie J., Wu Q., One-Pot Synthesis of ZnO/Ag Nanospheres with Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity, Mater. Lett., 64: 389-392 (2010).
[31] Chen Y., Zeng D., Zhang K., Lu A., Wang L., Peng D.-L., Au–ZnO Hybrid Nanoflowers, Nanomultipods and Nanopyramids: One-Pot Reaction Synthesis and Photocatalytic Properties, Nanoscale, 6: 874-881 (2014).