Bio-Based Surface Modification of Wool Fibers by Chitosan-Graphene Quantum Dots Nanocomposites

Document Type : Research Article


Department of Resin and Additives, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran, I.R. IRAN


Wool proteins have various chemical active groups which could create chemical reactions and bonds with functional groups existent in different substances. Hence, to have special features and competencies, one could perform surface modification of wool fibers using various chemical composites. This paper aims mainly to achieve surface modification of wool fibers by chitosan-nitrogen doped graphene quantum dots (Ch-NGQDs) as bio-based nanocomposites, and to investigate its consequent effects on the various properties of wool fibers such as color fastness, colorimetric parameters, and antibacterial activities. To do this, first, Ch-NGQDs nanocomposites were synthesized including certain weight percentages. Then, wool fibers were modified by prepared nanocomposites. In order to characterize and confirm the synthesis of NGQDs and Ch-NGQDs nanocomposites, FT-IR, XRD, HR-TEM, UV-Visible, and photoluminescence spectrometry were applied. Subsequently, surface modification of wool fibers by Ch-NGQDs nanocomposites was studied using FESEM spectrometry, analysis of fastness properties, colorimetric parameters, and Mueller-Hinton broth antibacterial test. Findings showed that surface modification of wool fibers by Ch-NGQDs nanocomposites led to partial improvement in their color fastness and colorimetric parameters. Additionally, surface modification of wool fibers resulted in the elimination of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria.


Main Subjects

[1] Wang D., Chen J.-F., Dai L., Recent Advances in Graphene Quantum Dots for Fluorescence Bioimaging from Cells Through Tissues to Animals, Part. Part. Syst. Char, 5: 515-523 (2015).
[4] Lin L.P., Rong M.C., Luo F., Chen D.M., Wang Y.R., Chen X., Luminescent Graphene Quantum Dots as New Fluorescent Materials for Environmental and Biological Applications, TrAC-Trends Anal. Chem. 54: 83-102 (2014).
[5] Madhi A., Sirkavand Hadavand B., Fluorescent Epoxy-Graphene Quantum Dots Nanocomposites: Synthesis and Study of Properties, Polym-Plast Tech Mat, 61: 117-130 (2022).
[6] Madhi A., Shirkavand Hadavand B., UV Protective Bio-Based Epoxy/Carbon Quantum Dots Nanocomposite Coatings: Synthesis and Investigation of Properties, J Compos Mater, 56: 2201-2210 (2022).
[7] Qu D., Zheng M., Zhang L., Zhao H., Xie Z., X Jing., Haddad R.E., Fan, H., Formation Mechanism and Optimization of Highly Luminescent N-Doped Graphene Quantum Dots, Sci. Rep., 4: 5294 (2014).
[8] Wu X., Tian F., Wang W., Chen J., Wu M., Zhao J.X., Fabrication of Highly Fluorescent Graphene Quantum Dots Using L-Glutamic Acid for in Vitro / in Vivo Imaging and Sensing, J. Mater. Chem. C, 1: 4676-4684 (2013).
[10] Nandi S., Malishev R., Parambath Kootery K., Mirsky Y., Kolusheva S., Jelinek R., Membrane Analysis with Amphiphilic Carbon Dots, Chem. Commun., 50: 10299-10302 (2014).
[11] Kai J., Sun S., Zhang L., Lu Y., Wu A., Cai C., Lin H., Red, Green, and Blue Luminescence by Carbon Dots: Full-Color Emission Tuning and Multicolor Cellular Imaging, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 54: 5360-5363 (2015).
[12] Kahrizi P., Mohseni‑Shahri F.S., Moeinpour F., Adsorptive Removal of Cadmium from Aqueous Solutions Using NiFe2O4/Hydroxyapatite/Graphene Quantum Dots as a Novel Nano‑Adsorbent, J. Nanostruct. Chem., 8: 441-452 (2018).
[13] Feng H., Qian Z., Functional Carbon Quantum Dots: A Versatile Platform for Chemosensing and Biosensing, Chem. Rec, 18: 491-505 (2018).
[15] Lukowiak A., Kedziora A., Strek W., Antimicrobial Graphene Family Materials: Progress, Advances, Hopes and Fears. Adv, Colloid Interface Sci., 236: 101-112 (2016).
[16] Lin F., Bao Y-W., Wu F-G., Carbon Dots for Sensing and Killing Microorganisms, J. Carbon Res., 5: 1-21 (2019).
[17] Gouveia Isabel C., Nanotechnology: A New Strategy to Develop Non-Toxic Antimicrobial Textiles, J. Biotechnol., 150: 407-414 (2010).
[20] Sadeghi-Kiakhani M., Safapour S., Ghanbari-Adivi F., Grafting of Chitosan-Acrylamide Hybrid on the Wool: Characterization, Reactive Dyeing, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Studies, Int. J. Biol. Macromol, 134: 1170-1178 (2019).
[21] Kasiri M.B., Safapour S., Environ. Natural Dyes and Antimicrobials for Green Treatment of Textiles, Environ. Chem. Lett, 12: 1-13 (2014).
[22] Hassan M.M., Carr C.M., A Review of the Sustainable Methods in Imparting Shrink Resistance to Wool Fabrics, J. Adv. Res, 18: 39-60 (2019).
[26] Safapour S., Sadeghi-Kiakhani M., Eshaghloo-Galugahi S., Extraction, Dyeing, and Antibacterial Properties of Crataegus Elbursensis Fruit Natural Dye on Wool Yarn, Fiber Polym, 19: 1428-1434 (2018).
[27] Adeel S., Rehman F., Pervaiz M., Hussaan M., Amin N., Majeed A., Rehman H., Microwave Assisted Green Isolation of Laccaic Acid from Lac Insect (Kerria lacca) for Wool Dyeing, Prog. Color Colorants Coat, 14: 293-299 (2021).
[28] Mei L., Gao X., Shi Y., Cheng C., Shi Z., Jiao M., Cao F., Xu, Z., Li X., Zhang J., Augmented Graphene Quantum Dot-Light Irradiation Therapy for Bacteria-Infected Wounds, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 12: 40153-40162 (2020).
[29] Nazan C., Ashabil A; Mehtap K., Antimicrobial Activities of Some Natural Dyes and Dyed Wool Yarn, Iran. J. Chem. Chem. Eng. (IJCCE), 36(4): 137-144 (2017).
[30] Yuan X., Liu Z., Guo Z., Ji Y., Jin M., Wang X., Cellular Distribution and Cytotoxicity of Graphene Quantum Dots with Different Functional Groups, Nanoscale Res. Lett, 9: 108 (2014).
[31] Atchudan R., Edison T.N.J.I., Perumal S., Lee Y.R., Green Synthesis of Nitrogen-Doped Graphitic Carbon Sheets with Use of Prunus Persica for Supercapacitor Applications, App. Surf. Sci., 393: 276-286 (2017).
[32] Kalanpour N., Nejati S., Keshipour S., Pd Nanoparticles/Graphene Quantum Dot Supported on Chitosan as a New Catalyst for the Reduction of Nitroarenes to Arylamines, J. Iran. Chem. Soc, 18: 1243-1250 (2021).
[33] Wang T., Reckmeier C.J., Lu S., Li Y., Cheng Y., Liao F., Rogachc A.L., Shao M., Gamma Ray Shifted and Enhanced Photoluminescence of Graphene Quantum Dots, J. Mater. Chem. C, 44: 10538-10544 (2016).
[35] Fatahi Z., Esfandiari N., Ehtesabi H., Bagheri Z., Tavana H., Ranjbar Z., Latifi H., Physicochemical and Cytotoxicity Analysis of Green Synthesis Carbon Dots for Cell Imaging, EXCLI J., 18: 454-466 (2019).
[36] Adeel S.,  Rehman F., Kaleem Khosa M.,  Anum T., Shahid M., Mahmood Zia K., Zuber M., Microwave Assisted Appraisal of Neem Bark Based Tannin Natural Dye and Its Application onto Bio-Mordanted Cotton Fabric, Iran. J. Chem. Chem. Eng. (IJCCE), 39(2): 159-170 (2020).
[37] Haji A., Rehman F., Adeel A., Haddar W., Pervaiz M., Hussaan M., Amin N., Guesmi A., Microwave Induced Sustainable Isolation of Laccaic Acid from Lac Insect for Nylon Dyeing, Iran. J. Chem. Chem. Eng. (IJCCE), 40(6): 1849-1859 (2020).
[38] Kamali Moghaddam M., Ghanbari Adivi M., Tehrani Dehkordi M., Effect of Acids and Different Mordanting Procedures on Color Characteristics of Dyed Wool Fibers Using Eggplant Peel (Solanum melongena L.), Prog. Color. Color. Coat, 12: 219-230 (2019).