Coal Ash as a Low Cost Adsorbent for the Removal of Xylenol Orange from Aqueous Solution

Document Type : Research Article


1 Institute of Chemical Sciences, University of Peshawar, Peshawar-25120, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, PAKISTAN

2 Depatrment of Statistics, University of Malakand, Chakdara, Dir (L), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, PAKISTAN


The removal ofxylenol orange from aqueous solution onto the coal ash was investigated at room temperature. The results show that the adsorption capacity of xylenol orange increased as the adsorption time increased and then equilibrium established after 30 min adsorption time. The results obtained revealed that the coal ash removed about 80 % of xylenol orange from the aqueous solution within 40 min. The effect of pH also studied, which showed that the adsorption of xylenol orange on the coal ash decreased as pH increased. The equilibrium adsorption isotherm data was fitted in Langmuir and Freundlich model equation and was found that the data followed both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Furthermore, we used a statistical measure (rank equation) in order to measure the strength of the relationship between the adsorption of xylenol orange onto coal ash and different adsorption time, and adsorption of different concentration of dye at equilibrium time.


Main Subjects

[1] Santhy K., Selvapathy P., Removal of Reactive Dyes from Waste Water by Adsorption on Coir Pith Activated Carbon. Bioresource Technol, 97, p.1329 (2006).    
[2] Mall I.D., Srivastava V.C., Agarwal N.K., Removal of Orange-G and Methyl Violet Dyes by Adsorption onto Bagasse Fly Ash-Kinetic Study and Equilibrium Isotherm Analyses, Dyes Pigments, 69, p. 210 (2006).  
[3] Dogan, M., Ozdemir, Y., Alkan, M. Adsorption Kinetics and Mechanism of Cationic Methyl Violet and Methylene Blue Dyes onto Sepiolite, Dyes Pigments, 75, p. 701 (2007).
[4] Mckay G., Allen S.J., Meconney I.F., Ottrburn M.S., Transport Processes in the Sorption of Colored Ions by Peat Particles, J Colloid Interf Sci, 80, p. 323 (1981).
[6] Bereket G., Arogus A.Z., Ozel M.Z., Removal of Pb(II), Cd(II),Cu(II) and Zn(II)  from Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption on Bentonite, J Colloid Interf Sci, 187, p. 338 (1997).
[7] Mohamed, M. M. Adsorption Properties of Ionic Surfactants on Molybdenum Modified Silica Gels, Colloid surface A, 108, p. 39 (1996).
[8] Mohan D., Singh K.P., Singh G., Kumar K., Removal of Dyes from Wastewater using Fly Ash: A Low-Cost Adsorbent, Ind Eng Chem Res, 41, p. 3688 (2002).
[9] Allen S.J., Mckay G., Khader K.Y.H., Equilibrium Adsorption Isotherms for basic Dyes onto Lignite, J Chem Technol Biot,45, p. 291 (1989).
[10] Ho Y.S., Mckay G., Sorption of Dye from Aqueous Solution by Peat. Chem Eng Letters, 70, p. 115 (1998).
[11] Mckay G., Otterburn M.S., Sweeney A.G., Surface Mass Transfer Processes during Colour Removal from Effluent Using Silica, Water Res, 15, p. 327 (1981).
[12] Mahmut Özacar, Sengil I.A., A Kinetic Study of Metal Complex Dye Sorption onto Pine Sawdust, Process Biochem, 40, p. 565 (2005).
[13] Annadurai G., Lee J.-F., Equilibrium Studies on the Adsorption of Acid Dye into Chitin, Environ. Chem Lett, 6, p. 77 (2008).
[14] Haider S., Park S.-Y., Preparation of the Electrospun Chitosan Nanofibers and Their Applications to the Adsorption of Cu(II) and Pb(II) Ions from an Aqueous Solution, J Membrane Sci, 328, p. 90 (2008).
[15] Saeed K., Haider S., Oh T.-J, Park, S.-Y., Preparation of Amidoxime-Modified Polyacrylonitrile (PAN-Oxime) Nanofibers and Their Applications to the Metal Ions Adsorption, J Membrane Sci, 322, p. 400 (2008).
[16] Mall I.D., Srivastava V.C., Kumar G.V.A., Mishra I.M., Characterization and Utilization of Mesoporous Fertilizer Plant Waste Carbon for Adsorptive Removal of Dyes from Aqueous Solution, Colloid surface A, 278, p. 175 (2006).
[17] Ishaq M., Saeed K., Ahmad I., Shakirullah M., Nadeem S., Removal of Tartrazine from Aqueous Solutions by Activated Coal, Ten Surfact Det, 1, p. 7, (2010).
[18] Bilba N., Bilba D., Mori G., Synthesis of a Polyacrylamidoxime Chelating Fiber and its Efficiency in the Retention of Palladium Ions, J Appl Polym Sci, 92, p. 3730 (2004).
[19] Paulino A.T., Guilherme M.R., Reis A.V., Tambourgi E.B., Nozaki J., Muniz E.C., Capacity of Adsorption of Pb2+ and Ni2+ from Aqueous Solutions by Chitosan Produced from Silkworm Chrysalides in Different Degrees of Deacetylation, J. HazardMater, 147, p. 139 (2007).
[20] Zhang X., Li A., Jiang Z., Zhang Q., Adsorption of Dyes and Phenol from Water on Resin Adsorbents: Effect of Adsorbate Size and Pore Size Distribution, J. HazardMater, 137, p. 1115 (2006).