Physiological and Biochemical Responses of Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd) Varieties to Salinity Stress

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agronomy, Shirvan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shirvan, I.R. IRAN

2 Department of Chemical Engineering, Quchan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Quchan, I.R. IRAN

3 Department of Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Sabzevar University, Sabzevar, I.R. IRAN

4 National Salinity Research Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Yazd, I.R. IRAN


Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) is recently introduced to Iran as a salt‐tolerant crop of high nutritional value. To investigate the physiological and biochemical responses of three quinoa varieties (‘NSRCQE’, ‘NSRCQB’, and ‘Titicaca’) were compared at ≤ 2 as control, 10, 17 dS/m saline water in an experimental farm of Yazd Province, Iran in 2017-2018. This experiment was conducted as a split plot based on a randomized complete block design with three replications, whereas the salinity treatment was in the main plots and the varieties in the subplots. Salinity and varieties significantly affected DPPH radical scavenging activity, phenol, anthocyanin, flavonoid, and Malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, accumulation of Na+ and K+, and Na+/K+ ratio, as well as seed protein and saponin contents. Salinity was caused by increasing DPPH radical scavenging activity, phenol, anthocyanin, flavonoid, and MDA contents, and accumulation of Na+ in the leaves and seeds. ‘NSRCQB’ had the highest average of most measured traits under all salinity levels. The DPPH radical scavenging activity in leaves was significantly and positively correlated with phenol content, anthocyanin content, flavonoid content, MDA, Na+ accumulation in the leaves, and DPPH activity, protein content, and Na+ accumulation in the seeds. Results indicated that the salinity stress increased the amount of paracomaric, quercetin acid, and camphor acids in the leaves and seeds of quinoa; also, the highest amount of these compounds was found by ‘NSRCQB’, also, ‘NSRCQE’ had the lowest average of most of these compounds. Based on these findings, we conclude that the salt tolerance of quinoa grown on salt‐affected soils of Yazd, Iran was linked with better crop stand establishment, low Na+ accumulation in leaves as well as increased activities of enzymatic and non‐enzymatic antioxidants, also, ‘NSRCQB’ variety showed the best potential under salinity conditions.


Main Subjects

[1] Aghighi Shahverdi M., Omidi H., Tabatabaei S.J. Stevia (Stevia Rebaudiana Bertoni) Responses to NaCl Stress: Growth, Photosynthetic Pigments, Diterpene Glycosides and Ion Content in Root and Shoot, J. Sau. Soc. Agri. Sci., 18(4): 355-360 (2019).
[3] Bazile D., Martínez E.A., Fuentes F., Diversity of Quinoa in a Bio-Geographical Island: A Review of Constraints and Potential from Arid to Temperate Regions of Chile, Not. Bot. Hor. Agro. Cl.-Nap., 42(2): 289-298 (2014).
[4] Bettaieb I., Knioua S., Hamrouni I., Limam F., Marzouk B. Water-Deficit Impact on Fatty acid and Essential Oil Composition and Antioxidant Activities of Cumin (Cuminum Cyminum L.) Aerial Parts, J. of Agriculture Food Chemistry., 59(1):328-34 (2011).
[6] Derbali W., Goussi R., Koyro H.W., Abdelly C., Manaa A., Physiological and Biochemical Markers for Screening Salt Tolerant Quinoa Genotypes at Early Seedling Stage, J. Plan. Inter., 15(1): 27–38 (2020).
[7] Dhindsa R.S., Plumb-Dhindsa P., Thorpe T.A., Correlated with Increased Levels of Membrane Permeability and Lipid Peroxidation, and Decreased Levels of Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase, J. of Experimental Botany., 32(1): 93-101 (1981).
[9] Farooq M., Hussain M., Wakeel A., Siddique K., Salt Stress in Maize: Effects, Resistance Mechanisms, and Management, A review, Agronomy for Sustainable Development., 35(2): 461-81 (2015).
[10] Gonzalez J.A., Bruno M., Valoy M., Prado F.E., Genotypic Variation of Gas Exchange Parameters and Leaf Stable Carbon and Nitrogen Isotopes in Ten Quinoa Cultivars Grown under Drought, J. of Agronomy Crop Science., 197(2): 81-93 (2011).
[11] Hariadi Y., Marandon K., Tian Y., Jacobsen S.E. Shabala S., Ionic and Osmotic Relations in Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd.) Plants Grown at Various Salinity Levels, J. of Experimental Botany, 62(1): 185-193 (2012).
[13] Iqbal S., Basra S., Afzal I., Wahid A., Saddiq M.S., Hafeez M.B., Yield Potential and Salt Tolerance of Quinoa on Salt-Degraded Soils of Pakistan, J. of Agronomy and Crop Science., 205(1): 13-21 (2019).
[14] Koyro H.W., Geissler N., Seenivasan R., Huchzermeyer B., "Plant Stress Physiology; Physiological and Biochemical Strategies Allowing to Thrieve under Ionic Stress", CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, 1051-1094 (2011).
[15] Maleki P., Saadat S., Bahrami H.A., Rezaei H., Esmaeelnejad L., Accumulation of Ions in Shoot and Seed of Quinoa (Chenopodium ‎Quinoa Willd.) under Salinity Stress, Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysi., 50(6): 782-793 (2019).
[16] Maleki P., Bahrami H.A., Saadat S., Sharifi F., Dehghany F., Salehi M. Salinity Threshold Value of Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa ‎Willd.) at ‎Various Growth Stages and the Appropriate ‎Irrigation Method by Saline ‎Water, Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis., 49(15): 1815-25 (2018).
[17] Naing A.H., Park K. I., Ai T.N., Chung M.Y., Han J.S., Kang Y.W., Overexpression of Snapdragon Delila (Del) Gene in Tobacco Enhances Anthocyanin Accumulation and Abiotic Stress Tolerance, BMC Plant Biology., 17(1): 65 (2017).
[18] Omidi H., Shams H., Seif Sahandi M., Rajabian T. Balangu (Lallemantia sp.) Growth and Physiology under Field Drought Conditions Affecting Plant Medicinal Content, Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 130: 641-646 (2018).
[19] Pulvento C., Riccardi M., Lavini A., Iafelice G., Marconi E., D’Andria R., Yield and Quality Characteristics of Quinoa Grown in Open Field under Different Saline and Non-Saline Irrigation Regimes, J. of Agronomy and Crop Science., 198(4): 254-63 (2012).
[21] Sakamoto M., Suzuki T., Methyl Jasmonate and Salinity Increase Anthocyanin Accumulation in Radish Sprouts, Horticulturae., 5(3): 1-10 (2019).
[23] Shahverdi M.A., Omidi H., Tabatabaei S.J., Plant Growth and Steviol Glycosides as Affected by Foliar Application of Selenium, Boron, and Iron under NaCl Stress in Stevia Rebaudiana Bertoni, Industrial Crops and Products, 125: 408-415 (2018).
[25] Stoleru V., Slabu C., Vitanescu M., Peres C., Cojocaru A., Covasa M.,  Tolerance of Three Quinoa Cultivars (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd.) to Salinity and Alkalinity Stress during Germination Stage, Agronomy., 9(6): 1-14 (2019).
[26] Talebnejad R., Sepaskhah A.R. Quinoa: A New Crop for Plant Diversification under Water and Salinity Stress Conditions in Iran, Acta Horticulture., 1190: 101-6 (2018).
[28] Waqas M., Yaning C., Iqbal H., Shareef M., Rehman H., Yang Y. Paclobutrazol Improves Salt Tolerance in Quinoa: Beyond the Stomatal and Biochemical Interventions, J. of Agronomy and Crop Science, 203(4): 315-322 (2017).
[29] Yang A., Akhtar S.S., Amjad M., Iqbal S. Jacobsen S.E., Growth and Physiological Responses of Quinoa to Drought and Temperature Stress, J. of Agronomy and Crop Science, 202(6): 445-53 (2016).
[30] Zhang B., Deng Z., Tang Y., Chen P., Liu R., Ramdath D.D., Fatty Acid, Carotenoid and Tocopherol Compositions of 20 Canadian Lentil Cultivars and Synergistic Contribution to Antioxidant Activities, Food Chemistry., 161: 296-304 (2014).