Green Synthesis and Antibacterial Effects of Silver Nanoparticles on Novel Activated Carbon

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Renewable Energies, Urmia University of Technology, Urmia, I.R. IRAN

2 Department of Biochemistry, Maragheh University of Medical Sciences, Maragheh, I.R. IRAN

3 Department of Microbiology, Qom Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qom, I.R. IRAN

4 Medicinal Plants Research Center, Maragheh University of Medical Sciences, Maragheh, I.R. IRAN

5 Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, IRAQ

6 Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tishk International University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, IRAQ


A green and simple method was proposed for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPLs) on novel Activated Carbon (AC) using glucose and dextrin as reducers and stabilizers of silver ions. Semecarpus Anacardium (SA) nutshells, an agricultural waste, were used as precursors to prepare low-cost Activated Carbon (AC) with a high surface area by chemical activation with KOH as an activator and different ratios of activating agents to the precursor. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPLs) on AC samples were synthesized using chemical and green procedures. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPLs) on AC samples were synthesized using chemical and green procedures. Surface functional groups in Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra and X-Ray powder Diffraction (XRD) diffractograms including a broad peak in the range of 2θ =15–28 and a weak and broad peak in the range of 2θ =40–48, confirmed successful synthesis of AC. Also, the reduction of Ag+ to Ag0 and the presence of Ag2O were confirmed by XRD and SEM/EDX analysis. Scanning Electron Microscopes (SEM) reveals that the particles are spherical in shape and the Transmission Electron Microscopes (TEMs) images confirm the particle size distribution of the silver nanoparticles mainly in the range of 1–5 nm. EDX mapping was used to observe the exact distribution of silver nanoparticles on the planar carbon surface. The BET results indicate that the AC synthesized with the activating agent to precursor ratios of 1 has the highest surface area (717 m2/g) and the largest pore volume (0.286 cm3/g). Finally, the resulting Ag-AC was applied to study antimicrobial activity against gram-negative bacteria by risk diffusion and the agar well method. Silver nanoparticles distributed on the activated carbon surface had significant antibacterial properties. The sample from green synthesis with an AgNO3 solution concentration of 0.1 M  showed the most antibacterial effect.


Main Subjects

[1] Chen Y., Zhu Y., Wang Z., Li Y., Wang L., Ding L., et al. Application Studies of Activated Carbon Derived from Rice Husks Produced by Chemical-Thermal Process—A Review, Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 163(1): 39-52 (2011).
[2] Aljeboree AM., Alshirifi AN., Alkaim AF., Kinetics and Equilibrium Study for the Adsorption of Textile Dyes on Coconut Shell Activated Carbon, Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 10: S3381-S3393 (2017).
[3] Mohanty K., Jha M., Meikap B., Biswas M., Preparation and Characterization of Activated Carbons from Terminalia Arjuna Nut with Zinc Chloride Activation for the Removal of Phenol from Wastewater, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 44(11): 4128-4138 (2005).
[4] Krishnamoorthy R., Govindan B., Banat F., Sagadevan V., Purushothaman M., Show PL., Date Pits Activated Carbon for Divalent Lead Ions Removal, Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 128(1): 88-97 (2019).
[5] Zafar, M., Ghafoor, S., Tabassum, M., Zubair, M., Nazar, M., Ashfaq, M., Utilization of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Hull Based Activated Carbon for the Removal of Amaranth Dye from Aqueous Solutions, Iranian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (IJCCE), 39(4): 183-191 (2020).
[6] Elazzouzi M., Haboubi K., Elyoubi M., Electrocoagulation Flocculation as a Low-Cost Process for Pollutants Removal from Urban Wastewater, Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 117: 614-626 (2017).
[8] Altintig E., Kirkil S., Preparation and Properties of Ag-Coated Activated Carbon Nanocomposites Produced from Wild Chestnut Shell by ZnCl2 Activation, Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 63: 180-188 (2016).
[9] Catalano P.N., Pezzoni M., Costa C., Soler GJdAA., Bellino M.G., Desimone M.F., Optically Transparent Silver-Loaded Mesoporous thin Film Coating with Long-Lasting Antibacterial Activity, Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 236: 158-166 (2016).
[10] Momeni M., Asadi S., Shanbedi M., Antimicrobial Effect of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized with Bougainvillea Glabra Extract on Staphylococcus Aureus and Escherichia Coli, Iranian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (IJCCE), 40(2): 395-405 (2021).
[11] Archana C., Iftikhar A., Preeti S., Mehraj Ud Din S., Gulshitab A., Suresh S., et al., Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Fruits Extracts of Syzygium cumini and Their Bioactivity, Chemical Physics Letters, 759: 139493-139498 (2022).
[13] Hassan M.F., Sabri M.A., Fazal H., Hafeez A., Shezad N., Hussain M., Recent Trends in Activated Carbon Fibers Production from Various Precursors and Applications—A Comparative Review, Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 145: 1118–1125 (2020).
[14] Yunus Z. M., Al-Gheethi A., Othman N., Hamdan R., Ruslan N.N., Advanced Methods for Activated Carbon from Agriculture Wastes; A Comprehensive Review, International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 102(1): 134-158 (2022).
[15] Alharbi N.S., Alsubhi N.S.,  Felimban, A.I., Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Medicinal Plants: Characterization and Application, Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences, 15(3): 109-124 (2022).
[16] Humphries R.M., Ambler J., Mitchell SL., Castanheira M., Dingle T., Hindler J.A., et al., CLSI Methods Development and Standardization Working Group Best Practices for Evaluation of Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests, Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 56(4):01934-17 (2018).
[17] Dahiya P., Purkayastha S., Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activity of Some Medicinal Plants Against Multi-Drug Resistant Bacteria from Clinical Isolates, Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 74(5): 443-450 (2012).
[18] CLSI. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Tests; Approved Standard. Edition E, Editor. Wayne, P.A.: Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; (2012).
[19] Limoncu M.H., Ermertcan Ş., Erac B., Taşli H., An Investigation of the Antimicrobial Impact of Drug Combinations Against Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Strains, Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences, 41(4): 719-724 (2011).
[20] Fekri M. H., Tousi F., Heydari R., Razavi Mehr M., Rashidipour M., Synthesis of Magnetic Novel Hybrid Nanocomposite (Fe3O4@SiO2/Activated Carbon) by a Green Method and Evaluation of Its Antibacterial PotentialIranian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (IJCCE), 41(3): 767-776 (2022).
[21] Yilmaz M.T., Minimum Inhibitory and Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations of Boron Compounds Against Several Bacterial Strains, Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences, 42(Sup. 2): 1423-1429 (2012).
[22] Gong Y., Wang H., Wei Z., Xie L., Wang Y., An Efficient Way to Introduce Hierarchical Structure into Biomass-Based Hydrothermal Carbonaceous Materials., ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, 2(10): 2435-2441 (2014).
[23] Danish M., Ahmad T., A Review on Utilization of Wood Biomass as a Sustainable Precursor for Activated Carbon Production and Application, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 87: 1-21 (2018).
[24] Tang Y-B., Liu Q., Chen F-Y., Preparation and Characterization of Activated Carbon from Waste Ramulus Mori, Chemical Engineering Journal, 203: 19-24 (2012).
[25] Zhao J., Yang L., Li F., Yu R., Jin C., Structural Evolution in the Graphitization Process of Activated Carbon by High-Pressure Sintering, Carbon, 47(3): 744-751 (2009).
 [26] Khan M., Khan M., Adil S.F., Tahir M.N., Tremel W., Alkhathlan H.Z., et al., Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Mediated by Pulicaria Glutinosa Extract, International Journal of Nanomedicine, 8: 1507-1516 (2013).
[28] Awwad A.M., Salem N.M., Abdeen A.O., Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Carob Leaf Extract and its Antibacterial Activity, International Journal of Industrial Chemistry, 4(1): 29 (2013).
 [29] Yan Z., Bao R., Chrisey D.B., Generation of Ag–Ag2O Complex Nanostructures by Excimer Laser Ablation of Ag in Water, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 15(9): 3052-3056 (2013)
[30] Zhong Z-Y., Yang Q., Li X-M., Luo K., Liu Y., Zeng G-M., Preparation of Peanut Hull-Based Activated Carbon by Microwave-Induced Phosphoric Acid Activation and its Application in Remazol Brilliant Blue R Adsorption, Industrial Crops and Products, 37(1): 178-185 (2012).
[31] Hsu C.F., Zhang L., Peng H., Travas-Sejdic J., Kilmartin P.A., Free Radical Scavenging Properties of Polypyrrole and Poly (3, 4-Ethylenedioxythiophene), Current Applied Physics, 8(3-4): 316-319 (2008).
[32] Attia A.A., Rashwan W.E., Khedr S.A., Capacity of Activated Carbon in the Removal of Acid Dyes Subsequent to Its Thermal Treatment., Dyes and Pigments, 69(3): 128-136 (2006).