Synthesis and Characterization of Activated Carbons from Walnut Shells to Remove Diclofenac

Document Type : Review Article


USTHB, Laboratory of Electrochemistry-Corrosion, Metallurgy and Mineral Chemistry. Faculty of Chemistry, University of Sciences and Technology Houari Boumediene. 16111 Bab-Ezzouar Algiers, ALGERIA


Diclofenac batch adsorption was investigated in a synthesized aqueous solution using Activated Carbons (ACs) prepared from walnut shells with the chemical activation method. The use of phosphoric acid as an activating agent for preparing of ACs has been studied. The ACs were yielded  at various concentrations 20,35,40,60,75 and 85%, respectively, which are termed AC20, AC35, AC40, AC60, AC75 and AC85%. Adsorbent was characterized for its texture by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Granulomere laser, Interferometric Microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-Attenuated total reflectance. The structure is determined by the iodine and methylene blue number, point of zero charge measurement and optimization of diclofenac adsorption parameters. Adsorption tests determined the adsorbate were performed on diclofenac sodium by varying the mass of ACs, pHi, initial concentration, stirring speed, contact time and temperature. The limits of pharmaceutical substance adsorption by prepared ACs were    99.66% with AC35% at pH= 2, m35% = 2mg, at contact time of 60min for diclofenac sodium. The synthesis results showed that the optimal physicochemical properties of the ACs were observed at 25°C, and the optimal iodine and methylene blue adsorption of AC35% was 3784.6 mg/g and 1990.67 mg/g, respectively. It was observed that the removal efficiency of Diclofenac sodium (DCF) was defined by the reactivity with the adsorbent and the percentage of activating agent. The ACs elaborate are
an excellent adsorbent for the removal of the pharmaceutical substance studied.


Main Subjects

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