Green Synthesis and Characterization of Magnetite Nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) Using Qazwan Seeds Extract as an Antimicrobial Agent

Document Type : Research Article

Author

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Soran University, Soran, Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG), IRAQ

Abstract

This study reports the green synthesis and eco-friendly preparation of the magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) using an aqueous extract of Qazwan (Pistacia atlantica) seeds as natural stabilizers and capping agents. The green Fe3O4 NPs were characterized with different characterization techniques such as Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-vis) Spectrometry, Energy Dispersive X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) Equipped with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDX), and Fourier Transform InfraRed (FT-IR) spectrophotometry. The UV-Vis spectrum and FT-IR were used to identify the biomolecules in the Qazwan seeds extract for green synthesized Fe3O4 NPs. The XRD, TEM, and SEM demonstrated the generation of  Fe3O4 NPs with an average diameter of 14-15 nm. The Williamson-Hall and the Scherrer equation obtained the crystalline size for Fe3O4 NPs, respectively, 6.43 and 14.22 nm which confirmed the effects of both crystallite size and strain. Additionally, the antibacterial and antifungal activity of synthesized Fe3O4 NPs was tested, which revealed that NPs had moderate antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis), gram-negative bacteria (E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanni, and Klebsiella pneumonia) and Candida albicans pathogenic fungal strains at different concentrations of Fe3O4 NPs (1.0 to 20 mg/mL) with average inhabitation zone of (8 to 22 mm).

Keywords

Main Subjects


[1] Vilardi G., Verdone N., Bubbico R. Combined Production of Metallic-Iron Nanoparticles: Exergy and Energy Analysis of Two Alternative Processes Using Hydrazine and NaBH4 as Reducing Agents, Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 118:97-111(2021).
[2] Jain R., Mendiratta S., Kumar L., Srivastava A. Green Synthesis of Iron Nanoparticles Using Artocarpus Heterophyllus Peel Extract and Their Application as a Heterogeneous Fenton-Like Catalyst for the Degradation of Fuchsin Basic Dye, Current Research in Green and Sustainable Chemistry, 4: 100086 (2021).
[3] Jamwal D., Mehta S.K., Metal Telluride Nanomaterials: Facile Synthesis, Properties, and Applications for Third Generation Devices, Chemistry Select, 4: 1943-1963 (2019).
[4] Akhtar k., Shah A., Zubair N., Javed K., Chemical Dynamics of Monodispersed Iron Oxide Nanoparticles, Iranian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (IJCCE), 38 (5): 21-30 (2019).
[5] Naeimi A., Nejat R., Synthesis and Characterization of a Novel Bio-Magnetically Recoverable Palladium Nanocomposite for the Photocatalytic Applications, Iranian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (IJCCE), 41(1): 15-26 (2022).
[6] Saikumari N., Comparative Study on Structuring and Photocatalytic Activity of Nanotitania Embossed with Organic Extracts, Iranian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (IJCCE), 41(9): 2886-2899 (2022).
[7] Buarki F., AbuHassan H., Al Hannan F., Henari F.Z. Green Synthesis of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Using Hibiscus Rosa Sinensis Flowers and their Antibacterial Activity, Journal of Nanotechnology, 2022: 5474645 (2022).
[8] Sivashankar R., Sivasubramanian V., Anand Kishore K., Sathya A B., Thirunavukkarasu A., Nithya R., Deepanraj B., Metanil Yellow Dye Adsorption Using Green and Chemical Mediated Synthesized Manganese Ferrite: An Insight into Equilibrium, Kinetics and Thermodynamics, Chemosphere, 307: 136218 (2022).
[9] Ajitha B., Ashok Kumar Reddy Y., Sreedhara Reddy P., Green Synthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles Using Lantana Camara Leaf Extract, Materials Science & Engineering C, 49: 373-381 (2015).
[10] Saif S., Tahir A., Chen Y., Green Synthesis of Iron Nanoparticles and Their Environmental Applications and Implications, Nanomaterials, 6: 209 (2016).
[11] Shahwan T., Abu Sirriah S., Nairat M., Boyacı E., Eroğlu A E., Scott T B., Hallam K R., Green Synthesis of Iron Nanoparticles and their Application as a Fenton-Like Catalyst for the Degradation of Aqueous Cationic and Anionic Dyes, Chemical Engineering Journal, 172: 258-266 (2011).
[12] Cruz D., Falé P.L., Mourato A., Vaz P.D., Serralheiro M.L., Lino A.R. Preparation and Physicochemical Characterization of ag Nanoparticles Biosynthesized by Lippia Citriodora (Lemon Verbena), Colloids and surfaces B, Biointerfaces, 81: 67-73 (2010).
[13] Golabiazar R., Othman K.I., Khalid K.M., Maruf D.H., Aulla S.M., Yusif P.A., Green Synthesis, Characterization, and Investigation Antibacterial Activity of Silver Nanoparticles Using Pistacia Atlantica Leaf Extract, BioNanoScience, 9: 323-333(2019).
[14] De Marco B.A., Rechelo B.S., Tótoli E.G., Kogawa A.C., Salgado H.R.N., Evolution of Green Chemistry and its Multidimensional Impacts: A Review, Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, 27: 1-8 (2019).
[15] Batool F., Iqbal M.S., Khan S-U-D., Khan J., Ahmed B., Qadir M.I. Biologically Synthesized Iron Nanoparticles (FeNps) from Phoenix Dactylifera Have Anti-Bacterial Activities, Scientific Reports, 11: 22132 (2021).
[16] Nasrollahzadeh M., Issaabadi Z., Sajadi S.M., Green Synthesis of a Cu/MgO Nanocomposite
by Cassytha Filiformis l. Extract and Investigation of its Catalytic Activity in the Reduction of Methylene Blue, Congo Red and Nitro Compounds in Aqueous Media, RSC Advances, 8: 3723-3735 (2018).
[17] Rafique M., Sadaf I., Rafique M.S., Tahir M.B., A Review on Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Their Applications, Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology, 45: 1272-1291 (2017).
[18] Golabiazar R., Qadir G.S., Faqe Z.A., Khalid K.M., Othman K.I., Rasool N.F., Saeed H.F., Green Biosynthesis of CdS NPs and CdS/Fe3O4 NCs by Hawthorn Plant Extract for Photodegradation of Methyl Orange Dye and Antibacterial Applications, Journal of Cluster Science, 33: 1223-1238 (2022).
[19] Ahmadi S.H., Davar P., Manbohi A., Adsorptive Removal of Reactive Orange 122 from Aqueous Solutions by Ionic Liquid Coated Fe3O4 Magnetic Nanoparticles as an Efficient Adsorbent, Iranian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (IJCCE), 35 (1): 63-73 (2016).
[20] Kumar B., Smita K., Galeas S., Sharma V., Guerrero V.H., Debut A., Cumbal L., Characterization and Application of Biosynthesized Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Using Citrus Paradisi Peel: A Sustainable Approach, Inorganic Chemistry Communications, 119: 108116 (2020).
[21] Golabiazar R., Sabr M.R., Ali A.A., Qadr N.S., Rahman R.S., Othman K.I., Khalid K.M., Musa S.J., Hamadammin B.J., Investigation and Characterization of Biosynthesized Green Adsorbent CuO Nps and CuO/ Fe3O4 NCs Using Adiantum C.V leaf for Removal MO Dye and Cr(VI) Metal Ions: Thermodynamic, Kinetic, and Antibacterial Studies, Journal of the Iranian Chemical Society, 19: 3135-3153 (2022).
[22] Golabiazar R., Omar Z.A., Ahmad R.N., Hasan S.A., Sajadi S.M., Synthesis and Characterization of Antibacterial Magnetite-Activated Carbon Nanoparticles, Journal of Chemical Research, 44: 80-87 (2019).
[23] Dhar P.K., Saha P., Hasan M.K., Amin M.K., Haque M.R., Green Synthesis of Magnetite Nanoparticles Using Lathyrus sativus Peel Extract and Evaluation of their Catalytic Activity, Cleaner Engineering and Technology, 3: 100117 (2021).
[24] Thirunavukkarasu A., Nithya R., Sivashankar R., A Review on the Role of Nanomaterials in the Removal of Organic Pollutants from Wastewater, Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology, 19: 751-778 (2020).
[25] Kumar B., Green Synthesis of Gold, Silver, and Iron Nanoparticles for the Degradation of Organic Pollutants in Wastewater, Journal of Composites Science, 5: 219 (2021).
[26] Lin J., Weng X., Jin X., Megharaj M., Naidu R., Chen Z., Reactivity of iron-based Nanoparticles by Green Synthesis under Various Atmospheres and Their Removal Mechanism of Methylene Blue, RSC Advances, 5: 70874-70882 (2015).
[27] Šutka A., Šutka A., Vanags M., Spule A., Eglītis R., Vihodceva S., Šmits K., Tamm A., Mežule L., Identifying Iron-Bearing Nanoparticle Precursor for Thermal Transformation into the Highly Active Hematite Photo-Fenton Catalyst, Catalysts, 10: 778 (2020).
[28] Jiang Q.L., Zheng S.W., Hong R.Y., Deng S.M., Guo L., Hu R.L., Gao B., Huang M., Cheng L.F., Liu G.H., Wang Y.Q., Folic Acid-Conjugated Fe3O4 Magnetic Nanoparticles for Hyperthermia and MRI in Vitro and in Vivo, Applied Surface Science, 307: 224-233 (2014).
[29] Nithya R., Thirunavukkarasu A., Sathya A B., Sivashankar R., Magnetic Materials and Magnetic Separation of Dyes from Aqueous Solutions: A Review. Environmental Chemistry Letters, 19: 1275-1294 (2021).
[30] Veisi H., Faraji A R., Hemmati S., Gil A., Green Synthesis of Palladium Nanoparticles Using Pistacia Atlantica Kurdica Gum and their Catalytic Performance in Mizoroki–Heck and Suzuki–Miyaura Coupling Reactions in Aqueous Solutions, Applied Organometallic Chemistry, 29: 517-523 (2015).
[31] Gourine N., Yousfi M., Bombarda I., Nadjemi B., Stocker P., Gaydou E.M., Antioxidant Activities and Chemical Composition of Essential Oil of Pistacia Atlantica from Algeria, Industrial Crops and Products, 31: 203-208 (2010).
[32] Atarod M., Nasrollahzadeh M., Mohammad Sajadi S., Green Synthesis of Pd/RGO/Fe3O4 Nanocomposite Using Withania Coagulans Leaf Extract and Its Application as Magnetically Separable and Reusable Catalyst for the Reduction of 4-Nitrophenol, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 465: 249-258 (2016).
[33] Yew Y.P., Shameli K., Miyake M., Kuwano N., Bt Ahmad Khairudin N.B., Bt Mohamad S.E., Lee K.X., Green Synthesis of Magnetite (Fe3O4) Nanoparticles Using Seaweed (Kappaphycus Alvarezii) Extract, Nanoscale research letters, 11: 276 (2016).
[34] Win T.T., Khan S., Bo B., Zada S., Fu P., Green Synthesis and Characterization of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles Using Chlorella-k01 Extract for Potential Enhancement of Plant Growth Stimulating and Antifungal Activity, Scientific Reports, 11: 21996 (2021).
[35] Kanagasubbulakshmi S., Kadirvelu K., Green Synthesis of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Using Lagenaria Siceraria and Evaluation of Its Antimicrobial Activity, Defence Life Science Journal, 2: 422 (2017).
[36] Sathishkumar G., Logeshwaran V., Sarathbabu S., Jha P.K., Jeyaraj M., Rajkuberan C., Senthilkumar N., Sivaramakrishnan S., Green Synthesis of Magnetic Fe3O4 Nanoparticles Using Couroupita Guianensis Aubl. Fruit Extract for their Antibacterial and Cytotoxicity Activities, Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology, 46: 589-598 (2018).
[37] Noruozi A., Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh A., Preparation, Characterization, and Investigation of the Catalytic Property of α-Fe2O3-ZnO Nanoparticles in the Photodegradation and Mineralization of Methylene Blue, Chemical Physics Letters, 752: 137587 (2020).
[38] Rezaei M., Nezamzadeh-Ejhieha A., The ZnO-NiO Nano-Composite: A Brief Characterization, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Study and Study the Arrhenius Model on the sulfasalazine Photodegradation, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 45: 24749-24764 (2020).
[39] Omrani N., Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh A., Focus on Scavengers’ Effects and GC-Mass Analysis of Photodegradation Intermediates of Sulfasalazine by Cu2O/CdS Nanocomposite, Separation and Purification Technology, 235: 116228 (2020).
[40] Groiss S., Selvaraj R., Varadavenkatesan T., Vinayagam R., Structural Characterization, Antibacterial and Catalytic Effect of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Synthesised Using the Leaf Extract of Cynometra Ramiflora, Journal of Molecular Structure, 1128: 572-578 (2017).
[41] Dash A., Ahmed M.T., Selvaraj R., Mesoporous Magnetite Nanoparticles Synthesis Using the Peltophorum Pterocarpum Pod Extract, Their Antibacterial Efficacy Against Pathogens and Ability to Remove a Pollutant Dye, Journal of Molecular Structure, 1178: 268-273 (2019).
[42] Fatimah I., Zunita Pratiwi E., Prio Wicaksono W., Synthesis of Magnetic Nanoparticles Using Parkia Speciosa Hassk Pod Extract and Photocatalytic Activity for Bromophenol Blue Degradation, The Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, 46: 35-40 (2020).
[43] Prasad C., Yuvaraja G., Venkateswarlu P., Biogenic Synthesis of Fe3O4 Magnetic Nanoparticles Using Pisum Sativum Peels Extract and its Effect on Magnetic and Methyl Orange Dye Degradation Studies, Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 424: 376-381 (2017).
[44] Sirdeshpande K.D., Sridhar A., Cholkar K.M., Selvaraj R., Structural Characterization of Mesoporous Magnetite Nanoparticles Synthesized Using the Leaf Extract of Calliandra Haematocephala and their Photocatalytic Degradation of Malachite Green Dye, Applied Nanoscience, 8: 675-683 (2018).
[45] Rajendrachari S., Karaoglanli A.C., Ceylan Y., Uzun O., A Fast and Robust Approach for the Green Synthesis of Spherical Magnetite (Fe3O4) Nanoparticles by Tilia Tomentosa (Ihlamur) Leaves and its Antibacterial Studies, Pharm Sci, 26: 175-183 (2020).
[46] Mane-Gavade S., Malgave A., Nikam G., Koli A., Supale A., Sabale S., Green Synthesis of Magnetite Nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) Using Acacia Concinna Fruit Extract and their Antibacterial Activity, Macromolecular Symposia, 400: 2100140 (2021).
[47] Heydari R., Koudehi M.F., Pourmortazavi S.M., Antibacterial Activity of Fe3O4/Cu Nanocomposite: Green Synthesis Using Carum carvi l. Seeds Aqueous Extract, ChemistrySelect, 4: 531-535 (2019).
[48] Akpomie K.G., Ghosh S., Gryzenhout M., Conradie J., Ananas Comosus Peel–Mediated Green Synthesized Magnetite Nanoparticles and their Antifungal Activity Against Four Filamentous Fungal Strains, Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, (2022).