Effective Parameters on High-Purity Lithium Carbonate Production from Spent Lithium-Ion Batteries

Document Type : Research Article

Authors

Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Tehran, I.R. IRAN

Abstract

The use of lithium-ion batteries in electronic devices is growing rapidly. As a result, the demand for the consumption of lithium metal has increased. Although spent lithium-ion batteries contain sources of precious metals, they seriously threaten human health and the environment. Therefore, the recovery of lithium-ion batteries may prevent environmental pollution. The hydrometallurgy method was applied as the recovery process due to its high recovery efficiency, low energy consumption, and high reaction rate. It is widely used in the recycling process of spent lithium-ion batteries. In this research, instead of all reports concerning synthetic wastewater, industrial wastewater containing lithium was used as feed. Effective parameters on lithium recovery in the form of lithium carbonate and its purity were the initial mass of solution to final mass of solution or concentration ratio, the mole ratio of sodium carbonate to lithium sulfate, raffinate usage, and the cooling effects. Results showed that the optimum condition to achieve maximum purity and recovery of lithium carbonate was obtained at a concentration ratio of 15-20. At different tests with the mole ratio of sodium carbonate to lithium sulfate as 1, 1.5, and 2, the highest recovery efficiency was obtained at the ratio of 1.5. The use of sediment-free raffinate in the last stage also played a big role in lithium recovery. To use the raffinate solution, the raffinate must first be removed from the saturated state of sodium sulfate. Then sodium carbonate becomes saturated in raffinate and is added to the original solution. Under the above conditions, lithium carbonate was obtained with a purity of approximately 99% and a recovery of 65%. The combined process of evaporation with cooling was also a proper process for producing lithium carbonate. In this state, the purity and recovery of the final product were approximately 97% and 75%, respectively.

Keywords

Main Subjects


[1] Sugashini, R., Soundarrajan P., Hybrid Deep Learning Algorithm for State of Charge Prediction of the Lithium-ion Battery for Electric Vehicles, Iran. J. Chem. Chem. Eng. (IJCCE), 42(8): 2250-2260 (2023).
[2] Sadeghi, B., Sarraf-Mamoory, R., Shahverdi, H.M., The Effect of LiFePO4 Coating on Electrochemical Performance of LiMn2O4 Cathode Material, Iran. J. Chem. Chem. Eng. (IJCCE), 31 (4): 29-33 (2012).
[3] Peng, C., Liu F., Wang Z., Wilson B.P., Lundström M., Selective Extraction of Lithium (Li) and Preparation of Battery Grade Lithium Carbonate (Li2CO3) from Spent Li-Ion Batteries in Nitrate System, J. Power Sources, 415: 179-188 (2019).
[4] Yang W., Zhou L., Dai J., Zhou L., Zhang M., Xie C., Hao H., Hou B., Bao Y., Yin Q., Crystallization of Lithium Carbonate from Aqueous Solution: New Insights into Crystal Agglomeration, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 58 (39): 18448-18455 (2019).
[5] Desaulty A. M., Climent D. M., Lefebvre G., Cristiano-Tassi A., Peralta D., Perret S., Urban A., Guerrot C. , Tracing the Origin of Lithium in Li-Ion Batteries Using Lithium Isotopes, Nat. Commun., 13: 1-10 (2022).
[6] Cao D., Tan C., Chen Y., Oxidative Decomposition Mechanisms of Lithium Carbonate on Carbon Substrates in Lithium Battery Chemistries, Nat. Commun., 13: 11-22 (2022).
[7] Meshram P., Pandey B.D., Mankhand T.R., Extraction of Lithium from Primary and Secondary Sources by Pre-Treatment, Leaching and Separation: A Comprehensive Review, Hydrometallurgy, 150: 192-208 (2014).
[9] Swain B., Recovery and Recycling of Lithium: A Review, Sep. Purif. Technol., 172: 388-403 (2017).
[10] Lai X., Yao J., Jin C., Feng X., Wang H., Xu  C., Zheng Y.,  A Review of Lithium-Ion Battery Failure Hazards: Test Standards, Accident Analysis, and Safety Suggestions, Batteries, 8: 248-261 (2022).
[11] Snyder M., Theis A., Understanding and Managing Hazards of Lithium-Ion Battery Systems, Process Saf. Prog., 41: 440-448 (2022).
[12] Mrozik W., Rajaeifar M. A., Heidrich O., Christensen P., Environmental Impacts, Pollution Sources and Pathways of Spent Lithium-Ion Batteries, Energy Environ. Sci., 14: 6099-6122 (2021).
[13] Zandevakili S., Ranjbar, M., Ehteshamzadeh M., Synthesis of Lithium Ion Sieve Nanoparticles and Optimizing Uptake Capacity by Taguchi Method, Iran. J. Chem. Chem. Eng. (IJCCE), 33(4): 15-24 (2014).
[14] Ali H., Khan H.A., Pecht M. G., Circular Economy of Li Batteries: Technologies and Trends, J. Energy Storage, 40: 102690-102705 (2021).
[15] Jung J.C.-Y, Sui P. C., Zhang J., A Review of Recycling Spent Lithium-Ion Battery Cathode Materials Using Hydrometallurgical Treatments, J. Energy Storage, 35: 102217-102225 (2021).
[16] Maroufi S., Assefi M., Khayyam Nekouei R., Sahajwalla V., Recovery of Lithium and Cobalt from Waste Lithium-Ion Batteries through a Selective Isolation-Suspension Approach, Sustain. Mater. Technol. 23: 139-148 (2020).
[17] Fang M., Chen J., Chen B., Wang J.,  Salt–Solvent Synchro-Constructed Robust Electrolyte–Electrode Interphase for High-Voltage Lithium Metal Batteries, J. Mater. Chem. A, 10: 19903-19913 (2022).
[18] Peng Y., Nishikawa K., Kanamura K., Effects of Carbonate Solvents and Lithium Salts in High Concentration Electrolytes on Lithium Anode, J. Electrochem. Soc., 169: 548-557 (2022).
[19] Ekberg C., Petranikova M., Lithium Process Chemistry, Elsevier. New York (2015).
[20] Siqi Z., Guangming L., Wenzhi H., Juwen H., Haochen Z., Recovery Methods and Regulation Status of Waste Lithium-Ion Batteries in China: A Mini Review, Waste Manag. Res., 37(11): 1142-1152 (2019).
[21] Granata, G., Moscardini E., Pagnanelli F., Trabucco F., Toro L., Product Recovery from Li-Ion Battery Wastes Coming from an Industrial Pre-treatment Plant: Lab Scale Tests and Process Simulations, J. Power Sources, 206: 393-401 (2012).
[22] Xu J., Thomas H. R., Francis R. W., Lum K. R., Wang J., Liang Bo., A Review of Processes and Technologies for the Recycling of Lithium-Ion Secondary Batteries, J. Power Sources, 177(2): 512-527 (2008).
[23] Chagnes A., Pospiech B., A Brief Review on Hydrometallurgical Technologies for Recycling Spent Lithiumā€Ion Batteries, J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol., 88(7): 1191-1199. (2013).
[24] Zhao C., Zhang Y., Cao H., Zheng X., Van Gerven T., Hu Y., Sun Z., Lithium Carbonate Recovery from Lithium-Containing Solution by Ultrasound Assisted Precipitation, Ultrason. Sonochem., 52: 484–492 (2019).
[25] Wang W., Chen W., Liu H., Hydrometallurgical Preparation of Lithium Carbonate from Lithium-Rich Electrolyte, Hydrometallurgy, 185: 88–92 (2019).
[26] Patnaik P., Handbook of Inorganic Chemicals, McGraw-Hill. New York (2002).
[27] Abo Atia T., Elia G., Hahn R., Altimari P., Pagnanelli F., Closed-Loop Hydrometallurgical Treatment of End-of-Life Lithium Ion Batteries: Towards Zero-Waste Process and Metal Recycling in Advanced Batteries, J. Energy Chem., 35: 220-227 (2019).
[29] Chen X., Chen Y., Zhou T., Liu D., Hu H., Fan S., Hydrometallurgical Recovery of Metal Values from Sulfuric Acid Leaching Liquor of Spent Lithium-Ion Batteries, J. Waste Manag., 38: 349-356 (2015).