The pH Role in Nanotechnology, Electrochemistry and Nano-Drug Delivery

Document Type : Review Article


Faculty of Chemistry, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, I.R. IRAN



Most chemical and biological processes are affected by pH. Also, different physiology organs and subcellular partitions could be characterized by their pH levels, as well as their pathophysiological characterization. Sometimes the pH has an extremely critical role in some procedures that the entire research or article focused on pH effect for example the pH was found to play a crucial role, pH has a high effect in different parts of nanotechnology such as shape, size, stability, activity, and morphology of nanostructure materials. Also, several nanochannels and smart doors are developed based on pH changes. In electrochemistry, pH has brilliant roles in oxidation/reduction potential land sensitivity of peak. In the biosensing process, the pH could affect the interaction of the analyte and biorecognition layer by different force and strategies, in some chemical and biochemical reaction and H+ has a catalytic effect, therefore, pH act as a catalyst in several chemical and biological processes. Therefore, finding the best pH for the optimum speed of these processes is critical, especially in biological processes. Electron and proton transfer are rather strongly coupled in many biological processes, also in the separation process for cleaning or measuring process. It is best to check the role of pH in the adsorption and release steps. Usually, it is necessary to find the optimum pH in the first step of the study before optimizing the other parameters.


Main Subjects

[1] Meng H., Jaouen F., Proietti E., Lefèvre M., Dodelet, J.-P., pH-Effect on Oxygen Reduction Activity of Fe-Based Electro-Catalysts, Electrochemistry Communications, 11: 1986-1989 (2009).
[2] Dehghan Abkenar S., Ganjali M.R., Hossieni M., Sadeghpour Karimi M., Application of Copper Vanadate Nanoparticles for Removal of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solution: Kinetics, Equilibrium, and Thermodynamic Studies, Iran. J. Chem. Chem. Eng. (IJCCE), 38(6): 83-92(2019).
[4] Swietach P., Vaughan-Jones R.D., Harris A.L., Hulikova A., The Chemistry, Physiology and Pathology of pH in Cancer, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 369(1638): 20130099-20130108 (2014).
[6] Avramescu M.L., Rasmussen P.E., Chénier M., Gardner H.D., Influence of pH, Particle Size and Crystal form on Dissolution Behaviour of Engineered Nanomaterials, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24(2): 1553-1564 (2017).
[7] Li Y., Wu H., Yang X., Jia M., Li Y., Huang Y., Lin J., Wu S., Hou Z., Mitomycin C-Soybean Phosphatidylcholine Complex-Loaded Self-Assembled PEG-Lipid-PLA Hybrid Nanoparticles for Targeted Drug Delivery and Dual-Controlled Drug Release, Molecular Pharmaceutics, 11: 2915-2927(2014).
[8] Radyum Ikono P.R.A., Siswanto, Wahyu Bambang W, Agus Sukarto, Nurul Taufiqu Rochman. Effect of pH Variation on Particle Size and Purity of Nano Zinc Oxide Synthesized by Sol-Gel Method, International Journal of Engineering & Technology IJET-IJENS, 12: 5-9 (2012).
[10] Faiyas A.P.A., Vinod E.M., Joseph J., Ganesan R., Pandey R.K., Dependence of pH and Surfactant Effect in the Synthesis of Magnetite (Fe3O4) Nanoparticles and its Properties, Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 322: 400-404 (2010).
[11] Roselina N.R.N., Azizan A., Hyie K.M., Jumahat A., Bakar M.A.A., Effect of pH on Formation of Nickel Nanostructures through Chemical Reduction Method, Procedia Engineering, 68: 43-48 (2013).
[12] Filho V.F.L., Machado G., Batista R.J.C., Soares J.S., de Oliveira A.B., de Vasconcelos C., Lino A.A., Manhabosco T. M., Effect of TiO2 Nanoparticles on Polyaniline Films Electropolymerized at Different pH, The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 120: 14977-14983 (2016).
[13] Zhang H.L., Hou X., Yang Z., YAn D., Li L., Tian Y., Wang H., Bio‐inspired Smart Single Asymmetric Hourglass Nanochannels for Continuous Shape and Ion Transport Control, Small, 11: 786-791(2015).
[14] Zhang H.L., Zeng L., Tian Y., Li L., Jiang L., Synthetic Asymmetric‐Shaped Nanodevices with Symmetric pH‐Gating Characteristics, Advanced Functional Materials, l25:1102-1110 (2015).
[16] Meng Z., Chen Y., Li X., Xu Y., Zhai J. Cooperative Effect of pH-Dependent Ion Transport within Two Symmetric-Structured Nanochannels, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 7: 7709-7716 (2015).
[17] de Groot G.W., Santonicola M.G., Sugihara K., Zambelli T., Reimhult E., Vörös J., Vancso G.J., Switching Transport through Nanopores with pH-Responsive Polymer Brushes for Controlled Ion Permeability, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 5: 1400-1407 (2013).
[18] Witoon T., Permsirivanich T., Chareonpanich M., Chitosan-Assisted Combustion Synthesis of CuO–ZnO Nanocomposites: Effect of pH and Chitosan Concentration, Ceramics International, 39: 3371-3375 (2013).
[19] Dahle J.T., Livi K., Arai Y., Effects of pH and Phosphate on CeO2 Nanoparticle Dissolution, Chemosphere, 119: 1365-1371 (2015).
[20] Wang Z., Fan X., Wang Q., Hou S., Wang H., Zhai J., Meng X., pH- and Light-Regulated Ion Transport in Hourglass Shaped Al2O3 Nanochannels Patterned with N719 and APTES, RSC Advances, 6: 63652-63659 (2016).
[21] Hsu W.-L., Inglis D.W., Jeong H., Dunstan D.E., Davidson M.R., Goldys E.M., Harvie D.J.E., Stationary Chemical Gradients for Concentration Gradient-Based Separation and Focusing in Nanofluidic Channels, Langmuir, 30: 5337-5348 (2014).
.22] Forster R.J., Pellegrin Y., Keyes T.E., pH Effects on the Rate of Heterogeneous Electron Transfer Across a Fluorine Doped Tin Oxide/Monolayer Interface, Electrochemistry Communications, 9: 1899-1906 (2007).
[23] Lazarescu V., Clavilier J., pH Effects on the Potentiodynamic behavior of the Pt(111) Electrode in Acidified NaClO4 Solutions, Electrochimica Acta, 4: 931-941(1998).
[25] Antonijevic’s Benito D., Gabrielli C., Garcı́a-Jareño J.J., Keddam M., Perrot H., Vicente F., Study by EQCM on the Voltammetric Electrogeneration of Poly(neutral red). The Effect of the pH and the Nature of Cations and Anions on the Electrochemistry of the Films, Electrochimica Acta, 48: 4039-4048 (2003).
[26] Nassar A.-E. F., Rusling J.F., Kumosinki T.F., Salt and pH Effects on Electrochemistry of Myoflobin in Thick Films of a Bilayer-Forming Surfactant, Biophysical Chemistry, 67(1-3): 107-116 (1997).
[27] Ambat R., Aung N.N., Zhou W., Effect of pH and Chloride Ion Concentration on the Corrosion and Electrochemical Behaviour of AZ91D Magnesium Alloy, Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, 30: 865-874 (2000).
[28] Wan K., Yu Z.-p., Li X.-h., Liu M.-y., Yang G., Piao J.-h., Liang Z.-X., pH Effect on Electrochemistry of Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Catalyst for Oxygen Reduction Reaction, ACS Catalysis, 5: 4325-4332 (2015).
[29] Ulianas A., Heng L.Y., Hanifah S.A., Ling T.L., An Electrochemical DNA Microbiosensor Based on Succinimide-Modified Acrylic Microspheres, Sensors, 12:5445 (2012).
[30] Enayati Ahangar L., Mehrgardi M., Silver Nanoparticles as Redox Reporters for the Amplified Electrochemical Detection of Single Base Mismatches, Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 26: 4308-4313(2011).
[31] Yao S., Liu Z., Shi Z., Arsenic Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption onto Iron Oxide/Activated Carbon Magnetic Composite, Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering, 12: 1-8 (2014).
[33] Padmavathy K.S., Madhu G., Sahoo D.K., Use of Response Surface Methodology for Optimisation of Performance of Magnetite Nanoadsorbents for Removal of Hexavalent Chromium from Wastewater, International Journal of Environment and Waste Management, 20(1): 49-65(2017).
[34] Zhou Q., Li Z., Shauang C., Li A., Zhang M., Efficient Removal of Tetracycline by Reusable Magnetic Microspheres with a High Surface Area, Chemical Engineering Journal, 210: 350-356 (2012).
[35] Freitas de Sousa A., Braga T.P., Gomes E.C.C., Valentini A., Longhinotti E., Absorption of Phosphate Using Mesoporous Sphere Containing Iron and Aluminum Oxid, Chemical Engineering Journal, 210: 143-149 (2012).
[36] Li Z., Chen F., Yuan L., Liu Y., Zhao Y., Chai Z., Shi W., Uranium(VI) Adsorption on Graphene Oxide Nanosheets from Aqueous Solutions, Chemical Engineering Journal, 210: 539-546 (2012).
[38] Rezanejade Bardajee Gh., Asgari Sh., Mirshokraie S.A., Submicron Particles of Double Network Alginate/ Polyacrylamide Hydrogels for Drug Delivery of 5-Fluorouracil, Iran. J. Chem. Chem. Eng. (IJCCE), 40(5): 1386-1394 (2021)
[39] Liu Y., Yang Y., Zhang Q., Lu D., Li S., Li J., ... & Shan Y., Dynamics of Delivering Aptamer Targeted Nano-Drugs into Cells, Journal of Materials Chemistry B, 9(4): 952-957 (2021).
[40] Zare M., Norouzi Roshan Z., Assadpour E., Jafari S. M., Improving the Cancer Prevention/Treatment Role of Carotenoids through Various Nano-Delivery Systems, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 61(3): 522-534 (2021).
[41] Yang M.Y., Zhao R.R., Fang Y.F., Jiang J.L., Yuan X.T., Shao J.W., Carrier-Free Nanodrug, A Novel Strategy of Cancer Diagnosis and Synergistic Therapy, International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 570: 118663-118676 (2019).
[42] Yang W., Kan A.K., Chen W., Tomson M.B., pH-Dependent Effect of Zinc on Arsenic Adsorption to Magnetite Nanoparticles, Water Research, 44: 5693-5701 (2010).
[43] Zhang L., Gu F.X., Cham J., Wang A.Z., Langer R., Farokhzad O.C., Nanoparticles in Medicine: Therapeutic Applications and Developments, Clinical Pharmacology Therapy, 83: 761-769 (2008).
[44] Muthu M.S., Rajesh C.V., Mishra A., Singh S., StimulusResponsive Targeted Nanomicelles for Effective Cancer Therapy, Nanomedicine, 4: 657-667(2009).
[45] Li Y.Y., Dong H.Q., Wang K., Shi D.L., Zhang X.Z., Zhuo R.X., Stimulus-Responsive Polymeric Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications, Science China Chemistry, 53: 447-457 (2010).
[46] Qin S.-Y., Zhang A.-Q., Cheng S.-X., Rong L., Zhang X.-Z., Drug Self-Delivery Systems for Cancer Therapy, Biomaterials, 112: 234-247(2017).
[47] li C., Huang W., Zhou L., Huang P., Zhu X., Yan D., PEGylate Poly(diselenide) Nanogel as Efficient Self, Polymer Chemistry, 36: 6498- 6508 (2015).
[48] Liu J., Pang Y., Zhu Z., Wang D., Li C., Huang W., Zhu X., Yan D., Therapeutic Nanocarriers with Hydrogen Peroxide-Triggered Drug Release for Cancer Treatment, Biomacromolecules, 14: 1627-1636 (2013).
[49] Coelho J.F., Ferreira P.C., Alves P., Cordeiro R., Fonseca A.C., Góis J.R., Gil M.H., Drug Delivery Systems: Advanced Technologies Potentially Applicable in Personalized Treatments, EPMA Journal, 11: 164-209(2010).
[50] Asayama S., Ogawa A., Kawakami H., Nagaoka S., Double-Stranded RNA Homopolymer Poly(rC)·Poly(rG) for a New pH-Sensitive Drug Carrier, Molecular Pharmaceutics, 5: 162-164 (2008).
[51] Gao W., Chan J.M., Farokhzad O.C., pH-Responsive Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery, Molecular Pharmaceutics, 7: 1913-1920 (2010).
[52] Yao X., Chen L., Chen X., Zhang Z., Zheng H., He C., Zhang J., Chen X., Intracellular pH-Sensitive Metallo-Supramolecular Nanogels for Anticancer Drug Delivery, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 6: 7816-7822 (2014).
[53] Wang S., Zhang S., Liu J., Liu Z., Su L., Wang H., Chang J., pH- and Reduction-Responsive Polymeric Lipid Vesicles for Enhanced Tumor Cellular Internalization and Triggered Drug Release, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 6: 10706-10713 (2014).
[54] Wu X., Wang Z., Zhu D., Zong S., Yang L., Zhong Y., Cui Y., pH and Thermo Dual-Stimuli-Responsive Drug Carrier Based on Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles Encapsulated in a Copolymer–Lipid Bilayer, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 5: 10895-10903 (2013).
[55] Sathiyaseelan A., Saravanakumar K., Mariadoss A.V.A., Wang M.H., pH-Controlled Nucleolin Targeted Release of Dual Drug from Chitosan-Gold Based Aptamer Functionalized Nano Drug Delivery System for Improved Glioblastoma Treatment, Carbohydrate Polymers, 262: 117907(2021).
[56] Rostami M., Nasab A.S., Fasihi-Ramandi M., Badiei A., Rahimi-Nasrabadi M., Ahmadi F., The ZnFe2O4@ mZnO–N/RGO Nano-Composite as a Carrier and an Intelligent Releaser Drug with Dual pH-and Ultrasound-Triggered Control, New Journal of Chemistry, 45(9): 4280-4291 (2021).
[57] Zhang Z., Chen X., Chen L., Yu S., Cao Y., He C., Chen X., Intracellular pH-Sensitive PEG-Block-Acetalated-Dextrans as Efficient Drug Delivery Platforms, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 5: 10760-10766(2013).
[58] Irby D., Du C., Li F., Lipid–Drug Conjugate for Enhancing Drug Delivery, Molecular Pharmaceutics, 14(5): 1325-1338 (2017).
[59] Sonawane S.J., Kalhapure R.S., Govender T., Hydrazone Linkages in pH Responsive Drug Delivery Systems, European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 99: 45-65 (2017).
[60] Yoshida T., Lai T.C., Kwon G.S., Sako K., pH- and Ion-Sensitive Polymers for Drug Delivery, Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery, 10: 1497-1513(2013).
[61] Ahmed F., Pakunlu R.I., Srinivas G., Brannan A., Bates F., Klein M.L., Minko T., Discher D.E., Shrinkage of a Rapidly Growing Tumor by Drug-Loaded Polymersomes:  pH-Triggered Release through Copolymer Degradation, Molecular Pharmaceutics, 3: 340-350 (2006).
[62] Hu X., Gao Z., Tan H., Zhang L.A., pH-Responsive Multifunctional Nanocarrier in the Application of Chemo-Photodynamic Therapy, Journal of Nanomaterials, 2019: (2019)
[63] Ruan H., Yao Sh., Wang S., Wang R., Xie C., Guo H., Lu W., Stapled RAP12 Peptide Ligand of LRP1 for Micelles-Based Multifunctional Glioma-Targeted Drug Delivery, Chemical Engineering Journal, 403: 126296 (2021).