Evaluation of Textile Wastewater Treatment Using Combined Methods: Factor Optimization via Split Plot RSM

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Maragheh, Maragheh, I.R. IRAN

2 Environmental Engineering Research Center, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz, I.R. IRAN


The increase in the consumption of textile products as well as the use of dye compounds has increased the pollution of the effluent in these industries. Discharge of this wastewater without proper treatment can cause groundwater pollution, poisoning, and serious health effects. Dyed pollutants contain benzene rings and are more resistant to conventional biological treatment such as activated sludge. In this study, two combined processes in series were applied for the treatment
of towel dyeing wastewater. An experimental design was used to optimize the process. In a batch reactor, the Anodic Oxidation (AO) process and the Electro-Fenton (EF) were compared using four anodes and cathodes. The performance of AO method in dye removal and COD reduction was
better than EF method. A good agreement is attained between the predicted value using experimental design and actual results. The correlation coefficient of dye removal, energy consumption, and COD was achieved 0.966, 0.997, and 0.900, respectively. The results showed that under optimum operating conditions of AO process (voltage=6.5 V, t= 6 min, and pH =9.5) decreased 97% of dye index and 61% of COD amount. This condition was obtained by consuming 6.7 kWh of energy per cubic meter of wastewater (0.07 $/m3). The output of the optimal AO entered the Reverse Osmosis (RO) system, in the last step. TDS of effluent was reduced 98% in the membrane and also the COD decreased from 980 to 13 ppm under 6 bar pressure


Main Subjects

[1] Sweety, “Bioremediation of Textile Dyes: Appraisal of Conventional and Biological Approaches”, Phytobiont and Ecosystem Restitution, Springer, (2018).
[3] Zirehpour A., Jahanshahi M., Rahimpour A., Unique Membrane Process Integration for Olive Oil Mill Wastewater Purification, Sep. Purif. Technol., 96: 124-131 (2012).
[4] Yang Y., Zhou T., Qiao Q., Chen S., Experimental Study of Wastewater Treatment of Reactive Dye by Phys-Chemistry Method, Journal of China University of Mining and Technology, 17: 96-100 (2007).
[6] Karimi A., Fatehifar E., Alizadeh R., Soltani H., Kinetic Study of the Regeneration of Spent Caustic Via the Genetic Algorithm Method, Environmental Health Engineering and Management Journal, 5(4): 231-239 (2018).
[7] Karimi A., Fatehifar E., Alizadeh R., Ahadzadeh I., Regeneration and Treatment of Sulfidic Spent Caustic Using Analytic Hierarchy Process, Environmental Health Engineering and Management Journal, 3(4): 203-208 (2016).
[8] Karimi A., Fatehifar E., Alizadeh R., Ahadzadeh I., Regeneration of Spent Caustic of Olefin Unit in a Bubble Column Reactor, Treatment and Recovery Optimization, Environ. Prog. Sustainable Energy, 36(2): 341-347 (2017).
[9] Jeworski M., Heinzle E., Combined Chemical-Biological Treatment of Wastewater Containing Refractory Pollutants, Biotechnol Annu. Rev., 6: 163-196 (2000).
[10] Oturan M.A., Aaron J.-J., Advanced Oxidation Processes in Water/Wastewater Treatment: Principles and Applications. A Review, Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 44(23): 2577-2641 (2014).
[11] Latimer W.M., Oxidation Potentials. Prentice-Hall, (1952).
[12] Chong M.N., Sharma A.K., Burn S., Saint Ch.P., Feasibility Study on the Application of Advanced Oxidation Technologies for Decentralised Wastewater Treatment, J. Cleaner Prod., 35: 230-238 (2012).
[13] Brillas, E., Sirés, I., Oturan, M. A. Electro-Fenton Process and Related Electrochemical Technologies Based on Fenton’s Reaction Chemistry, Chem. Rev., 109(12): 6570-6631 (2009).
[14] Comninellis C., Kapalka A., Malato S., Parsons S.A., Poulios I., Mantzavinos D., Advanced Oxidation Processes for Water Treatment: Advances and Trends for R&D, J Chem. Technol. Biotechnol., 83(6): 769-776 (2008).
[15] Chaplin B.P., Critical Review of Electrochemical Advanced Oxidation Processes for Water Treatment Applications, Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, 16(6): 1182-1203 (2014).
[16] BiliƄska L., Gmurek M., Ledakowicz S., Textile Wastewater Treatment by AOPs for Brine Reuse, Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 109: 420-428 (2017).
[17] Kaur P., Kushwaha J.P., Sangal V.K., Evaluation and Disposability Study of Actual Textile Wastewater Treatment by electro-oxidation Method Using Ti/RuO2 Anode, Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 111: 13-22 (2017).
[18] Martínez-Huitle C.A., Ferro S., Electrochemical Oxidation of Organic Pollutants for the Wastewater Treatment: Direct and Indirect Processes, Chem. Soc. Rev., 35: 1324-1340 (2006).
[19] Panizza M., Cerisola G., Direct and Mediated Anodic Oxidation of Organic Pollutants, Chem. Rev., 109: 6541-6569 (2009).
[20] Bouafia-Chergui S., Oturan N., Khalaf H., Oturan M.A., Parametric Study on the Effect of the Ratios [H2O2]/[Fe3+] and [H2O2]/[substrate] on the Photo-Fenton Degradation of Cationic Azo Dye Basic Blue 41, J. Environ. Sci. Health. A Tox Hazard Subst. Environ. Eng., 45(5): 622-629 (2010).
[21] Malato S., Fernández-Ibáñez P., Maldonado M. I., Blanco J., Gernjak W., Decontamination and Disinfection of Water by Solar Photocatalysis: The Pilot Plants of the Plataforma Solar De Almeria. Catal. Today, 147(1): 1-59 (2009).
[22] Moreira F.C., Boaventura, R.A.R., Brillas E., Vilar V.J.P., Electrochemical Advanced Oxidation Processes: A Review on their Application to Synthetic and Real Wastewaters, Appl. Catal., B, 202: 217-261 (2017).
[25] Rezaee-Mofrad M.R., Miranzadeh M.B., Pourgholi M., Akbari H., Dehghani R., Evaluating the Efficiency of Advanced Oxidation Methods on Dye Removal from Textile Wastewater, Feyz Journal of Kashan University of Medical Sciences, 17(1): 32-39 (2013).
[27] Alcocer S., Picos A., Uribe A. R., Pérez T., Peralta-Hernández J.M., Comparative Study for Degradation of Industrial Dyes by Electrochemical Advanced Oxidation Processes with BDD Anode in a Laboratory Stirred Tank Reactor, Chemosphere, 205: 682-689 (2018).
[28] Tan Y.-J., Sun L.-J., Li B.-T., Zhao X.-H., yu T., Ikuno N., Hu H.-Y., Fouling Characteristics and Fouling Control of Reverse Osmosis Membranes for Desalination of Dyeing Wastewater with High Chemical Oxygen Demand, Desalination, 419: 1-7 (2017).
[29] Dehghani S., Rezaee A., Hadadiyan F., Bipolar Electro-Fenton System for Textile Dye Removal From Aqueous Solution, Iranian Journal of Health, Safety & Environment, 5: 882-887 (2017).
[30] Sarabia L.A., Ortiz M.C., Comprehensive Chemometrics, Chemical and Biochemical Data Analysis, 1: 345-390 (2009).
[31] Gomravi, Y., Karimi, A. and Azimi, H., Adsorption of Heavy Metal Ions via Apple Waste Low-Cost Adsorbent: Characterization and Performance, Korean J Chem Eng., 38: 1843-1858 (2021).
[32] Gotsi M., Kalogerakis N., Psillakis E., Samaras P., Mantzavinos D., Electrochemical Oxidation of Olive Oil Mill Wastewaters, Water Res., 39(17): 4177-4187 (2005).
[33] Parsa J.B., Rezaei M., Soleymani A.R., Electrochemical Oxidation of an Azo Dye in Aqueous Media Investigation of Operational Parameters and Kinetics, J. Hazard. Mater, 168(2): 997-1003 (2009).
[34] Daghrir R., Drogui P., Robert D., Photoelectrocatalytic Technologies for Environmental Applications, Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, 38: 41-52 (2012).
[35] Karimi A., Mahmoudi E., Fatehifar E., Motavalli A., Influence of Crude Oil Type on Products Quality of the Atmospheric Distillation Unit by Applying Material Flow Cost Accounting Simulation: Part A,  Iran. J. Chem. Chem. Eng. (IJCCE), 39(6): 215-227 (2020).
[36] Karimi A, Soltani H, Hasanzadeh A., An Analysis of Increasing the Purity of Ethylene Production in the Ethylene Fractionation Column by the Genetic Algorithm, Chem. Prod. Process Model., 15(3): 1-8 (2020).
[37] Financial Tribune, Rise in Electricity and Water Tariffs in Iran.
rise-in-electricity-and-water-tariffs-in-iran (accessed April 05, 2019)