Deep Eutectic Solvents as an Efficient Solvent System Determination the Volatile Compounds with Microextraction

Document Type : Research Article


Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Maragheh, Maragheh, I.R. IRAN


In the present work, the Headspace-Solid Phase MicroExtraction (HS-SDME) process was established utilizing a novel version of Deep-Eutectic-Solvents (DESs) for extracting and preconcentrating essential oils in plants followed by GC-FID determination. DESs seem to be a cost-effective and attractive alternative for the usage of ionic solvents in biotransformation. DESs are usually developed through gentle warming and stirring of two (low-cost and bio-based) salts. DESs have several superiorities over ionic liquids such as their ease of preparation, low production cost, and permit for large-scale applications. HS-SDME was made in the current research in order to extract volatile compounds by the use of Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs) serving as extraction solvents. HS-SDME was constructed as a solvent-minimized extraction method. However, there are a rare number of studies investigating the Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs) applications to the HS-SDME of bioactive compounds. Deep eutectic solvents, created by mixing choline chloride (ChCl) and p-Chlorophenol at varying ratios were utilized for extracting essential oils from Echinophora  platyloba  DC via HS-SDME in the present study. Afterward, headspace single-drop micro-extraction (HS–SDME) was conducted, being connected to gas chromatography. HS-SDME is a quick and simple method in comparison with heat reflux extraction. In addition, it is possible to use DESs in HS-SDME for extracting various volatile compounds. 


Main Subjects

[1]  Avijgan M., Mahboubi M., Echinophora Platyloba DC. As a New Natural Antifungal Agent, Asian Pac. J. Trop. Dis., 5: 169-174 (2015).
[2] Mazloomifar H., Saber-Tehrani M., Rustaiyan A., Masoudi S.,  Constituents of the Essential Oil of Echinophora Platyloba DC Growing wild in Iran, J. Essent. Oil Res., 16: 284-285 (2004).
[3] Domı´nguez de Marı´a P., Maugeri Z., Ionic Liquids in Biotransformations: From Proof-Of-Concept to Emerging Deep-Eutectic-Solvents, Current Opinion in Chemical Biology., 15:220–225 (2011).
[4] Gorke J., Srienc F., Kazlauskas R.J., Toward Advanced Ionic Liquids. Polar, Enzyme-Friendly Solvents for Biocatalysis, Biotechnol Bioprocess Eng., 15: 40-53 (2010).
[6] Zeng Q., Wang, Y., Huang Y., Ding X., Chen J., Xu K., Deep Eutectic Solvents as Novel Extraction Media for Protein Partitioning, Analyst, 139: 2565-2573 (2014).
[8] Abbott A.P., Boothby D., Capper G., Davies D.L., Rasheed R.K., Deep Eutectic Solvents Formed Between Choline Chloride and Carboxylic Acids: Versatile Alternatives to Ionic Liquids, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 126:9142-9147(2004).
[10] Zhang P., Hu L., Lu R., Zhou W., Gao H.,  Application of Ionic Liquids for Liquid-Liquid Microextraction, Analytical Method, 5: 5376-5385 (2013).
[11] Sun N., Rodríguez H., Rahman M., Rogers R.D., Where are Ionic Liquid Strategies Most Suited in the Pursuit of Chemicals and Energy from Lignocellulosic Biomass? Chem. Commun., 47: 1405–1421(2011).
[12] Xie H., Li S., Zhang S., Ionic Liquids as Novel Solvents for the Dissolution and Blending of Wool Keratin Fibers, Green Chem., 7: 606–608(2005).
[13] Bica K., Gaertner P., Rogers R.D., Ionic Liquids and Fragrances–Direct Isolation Of Orange Essential Oil. Green Chem., 13: 1997–1999(2011).
[16] Gholivand M.B., Abolghasemi M.M., Piryaei M., Maassoumi S.M., Papzan A., Microwave Distillation Followed by Headspace Single Drop Microextraction Coupled to Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS) for Fast Analysis of Volatile Components, Natural Product Res., 138:251-255(2013).
[17] Farajzadeh M.A., Afshar Mogaddam M.R., Aghanassab M., Deep Eutectic Solvent-Based Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction, Anal. Methods., 8: 2576-2583 (2016).
[19] Carriazo D., Serrano M.C., Gutierrez M.C., Ferrer M.L., del Monte F., Deep-Eutectic Solvents Playing Multiple Roles in the Synthesis of Polymers and Related Materials, Chem. Soc. Rev., 41: 4996–5014 (2012).