Biological Study from Ruta Plants Extracts Growing in Tunisia

Document Type : Review Article


1 Laboratoire Matériaux Molécules et Applications (LMMA), IPEST, BP51, La Marsa 2070, TUNISIE

2 Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte, Université de Carthage, TUNISIE

3 Institut National des Sciences et Technologies de la Mer (INSTM), Laboratoire Milieu Marin, Centre la Goulette, TUNISIE


Ruta species are known as a potential source of natural products with biological activities. They are used in several fields such as in therapeutic and traditional medicine. In order to contribute to the valorization of these plants, this work investigated the chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oils of Ruta montana and Ruta gravelons growing in tunisia (north of tunisia). The total phenolic content of these two essential oils was also studied. The antibacterial activities of essential oils were assessed against Escherichia coli (ATCC7625), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC76110), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 7624), Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results show that the chemical composition of essential oils was dominated by 2-undecanone (86.77%), followed by 2-decanone (4.91%) and 2-nonanone (23.62%). Furthermore, the total phenolic content in essential oil of Ruta gravelons is more important than the total phenolic content in essential oil of Ruta montana. Indeed, the value of total phenolic content is 41.70 mg Gallic acid equivalents per gram of dry extract, in essential oil of Ruta gravelons but the total phenolic content in essential oil of Ruta montana is a 7.50 mg  Gallic acid equivalents per gram of dry extract. Besides, the ruta montana essential oil has the most important antibacterial activity than the Ruta gravelons essential oil especially against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC76110) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 7624).


Main Subjects

[1] Zeichen de sa. R., Rey A., Arganaraz E., Bindstein E., Perinatal Toxicology of Ruta Chalepensis (Rutaceae) in Mice, J Ethnopharmacol, 69(2): 93-98 ( 2000).
[2] Gonzalez-trujano M.E., Carrera D., Ventura-martinez R., Cedillo-Portugal E., Navarrete A., Neuropharmacological Profile of an Ethanol Extract of Ruta chalepensis L. in Mice, J. Ethnopharmacological, 106(1): 129-135 (2006).
[3] Albarici T.R., Vieira P.C., Fernandes J.B., Silva M.F.G., Pirani J.R., Cumarinas e Alcaloides de Rauia Resinosa (Rutaceae) [Coumarins and Alkaloids of Rauia Resinosa (Rutaceae)] Quimica Nova, 33: 2130-2134 (2010).
[4] França orlanda J.F., Nascimento A.R., Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae) Volatile Oils, from São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil South African Journal of Botany, 99: 103-106 (2015).
[5] Mejri J., Abderrabba M., Mejri M., Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of Ruta chalepensis L: Influence of Drying, Hydro-Distillation Duration and Plant Parts, Industrial Crops and Products, 32(3): 671-673 (2010).
[6] Lauk L, Mangano K, Rapisarda A, Ragusa S, Maiolino L, Musumeci R, Costanzo R, Serra A, Speciale A, Protection Against Murine Endotoxemia by Treatment with Ruta Chalepensis L., a Plant with Anti-Inflammatory Properties J Ethnopharmacol90 (2-3): 267-272 (2004).
[7] Ratheesh M, Shyni G.I, Sindhu G, Helen A, Inhibitory Effect of Ruta graveolens L. on Oxidative Damage, Inflammation and Aortic Pathology in Hypercholesteromic Rats, Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology, 63(3): 285-290 (2011).
[8] Gardete S., Tomasz J., Mechanisms of Vancomycin Resistance in Staphylococcus Aureus, Journal of Clinical Investigation, 124(7): 2836-2840 (2014).
[9] Hnatyszyn O., Arenas P., Moreno A.R., Rondina R., Coussio J.D., Plantas Reguladoras de la Fecundided Segun la Medicina Folklorica, Rev. Soc. Cient. Paraguai, 14: 23-57 (1974).
[10] Chen C.C., Huang Y.L., Hunang F.I., Wang C.W., Water-Soluble Glycosides from Ruta Graveolens Journal of Natural Products, 64: 990-992 (2001).
[3] Viuda-Martos M., Mohamady M.A., Fermandez-Lopez J., Abd Elrazik K.A., Omer E.A., Perez-Alvarez J.A., In vitro Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Essentials Oils Obtained from Egyptian Aromatic Plants, Food Control, 22(11): 1715-1722 (2011)
[14] Adams R.P, Identification of Essential Oil Components by Gas Chromatography /Mass Spectroscopy, J. American Society for Mass Spectrometry (2007).
[15] a) NCCLS, “Quality Control Values for Veterinary-Use Fluoroquinolones”, National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Stnadards, M100-511, Wayne, PA, USA (2001).
        b) Singleton.V.L, Rossi.J.A, Colorimetry of Total Phenolics with Phosphomolybdic-Phosphotungstic Acid Reagents American, Journal of Enology and viticulture, 16: 144-158 (1965)
[16] Dob T., Dahmane D., Gauriat-desrdy B., Daligault V., Volatile Constituents of the Essential Oil of Ruta chalepensis L. subsp. Angustifolia (Pers.) P. Cout. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 20(30): 306-309 (2008).
[17] Merghache S., Hamza M., Tabti B., Etude Physicochimique de l’huile Essentielle de Ruta Chalepensis L. de Tlemcen, Algérie, Afrique Science, 05 (1): 67-81 (2009).
[18] Haddouchi F., Zaouli Y., Ksouri R., Attou A., Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oils from Four Ruta Species Growing in Algeria Food Chemistry, 141(1): 253-258 (2013)
[19] Lucia B., Renata A., Ernesto R., Concentration of Ruta graveolens Active Compounds Using SC-CO2 Extraction Coupled with Fractional Separation, The Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 131: 82-86 (2018).
[20] Ouerghemmi I., Bettaieb Rebey I., Rahali F.Z., Bourgou S., Pistelli L., Ksouri R., Marzouk B., Tounsi Saidani M., Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Phenolic Compounds from Extracts of Cultivated and Wild-Grown Tunisian Ruta chalepensis, Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, 25(2): 350-359 (2017).
[21] Diwan R., Shinde A., Malpathak N., Phytochemical Composition and Antioxidant Potential of Ruta graveolens L. In Vitro Culture Lines, J. Bot., 17: 1-6 (2012).
[23]Djerdane A., Yousf M., Nadjemi B., Boutassouna D., Stocker P., Vidal N., Antioxidant Activity of some Algerian Medicinal Plants Extracts Containing Phenolic Compounds, Food Chem., 97(4): 654-660 (2006).
[24] Delaquis P.J., Stanich K., Girard B., Mazza G., Antimicrobial Activity of Individual and Mixed Fractions of Dill, Cilantro, Coriander and Eucalyptus Essential Oils, International Journal of Food Microbiology,74(1-2): 306-309 (2002).
[25] Dorman H.J.D., Deans S.G, Antimicrobial Agents from Plants: Antibacterial Activity of Plant Volatile Oils, Journal of Applied Microbiology, 88 (2): 308-316 (2000).
[26] Ben-Bnina E., Hammami S., Daamii-remadi M., Ben jannet H., Mighiri Z., Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Effects of Tunisian Ruta Chalepensis L. Essential Oils, Journal de la Société Chimique de Tunisie, 12: 1-9 (2010).