Phase Diagrams for the Aqueous Solutions of Carboxylic Acid with Dipropyl Ether: Experimental and Correlated Data

Document Type : Research Article


Istanbul University-Cerrahpaşa, Engineering Faculty, Department of Chemical Engineering, 34320, Istanbul, TURKEY


In this research, liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data were experimentally obtained for the ternary systems of (water + carboxylic acid + dipropyl ether) at T = 298.2 K and P = 101.3 kPa. The carboxylic acids used in this study were isobutyric acid, valeric acid, and isovaleric acid. All these systems are according to Treybal classification, Type-2 systems because the two binary subsystems are partially miscible. The lowest distribution coefficients and separation factors were calculated for isobutyric acid (40 and 329, respectively). The authenticity of the experimental equilibrium data was identified from Hand and Othmer-Tobias correlations.  The experimental tie-line data were correlated by using the nonrandom two-liquid (NRTL) and universal quasi-chemical (UNIQUAC) activity coefficient models. RMSD values are between 0.0112 and 0.0155 for NRTL model and are between 0.0083 and 0.0153 for UNIQUAC model.


Main Subjects

[1] Lidén G., Carboxylic Acid Production, Fermentation, 46:1-3 (2017).
[2] Turkmenoğlu A., Özmen D., Bekri S., Phase Equilibrium Study and Data Correlations for the Ternary Mixture of (Water–Butyric Acid-[Hmim][Pf6]) At Different Temperatures, Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan, 52:1–7 (2019).
[3] Saeed A., Iqbal Z., Gulzar Z., Hai Z., Akram M., Liaqat L., Tara Z., Mansha M., Khalil H.I., Gc-Fid and Physicochemical Studies of Oil from The Leaves of Ficus Elastic Linn, World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 6: 47-53 (2017).
[4] Isobutyric Acid (Last Access Date: July 25, 2019)
[6] Timedjeghdine M., Hasseine A., Binous H., Bacha O., Attarakih M., Liquid–Liquid Equilibrium Data for Water + Formic Acid + Solvent (Butyl Acetate, Ethyl Acetate, and Isoamyl Alcohol) at T = 291.15 K, Fluid Phase Equilib., 415: 51-57 (2016).
[7] Radwan G.M., Al Muhtaseb S.A., Phase Equilibria of the Ternary System Water + Propionic Acid + 2-Butanol, Sep. Sci. and Technol., 32: 1463-1476 (1997).
[11] Özmen D., Çehreli S., Dramur U., (Liquid + Liquid) Equilibria of (Water + Propionic Acid + Dimethyl Phthalate) at Several Temperatures, J. Chem. Thermodyn., 37: 837-842 (2005).
[13] Çehreli S., Özmen D., Tatlı B., (Liquid + Liquid) Equilibria of (Water + Propionic Acid + Diethyl Phthalate) at Several Temperatures, J. Chem. Thermodyn., 37: 1144-1150 (2005).
[16] Sólimo H.N., Bonatti C.M., Zurita J.L., Gramajo De Doz M.B, Liquid-Liquid Equilibria for the System Water + Propionic Acid + 1-Butanol at 303.2 K. Effect of Addition of Sodium Chloride, Fluid Phase Equilib., 137: 163-172 (1997).
[17] Zurita J.L., Gramajo De Doz M.B., Bonatti C.M., Sólimo H.N., Effect of Addition of Calcium Chloride on the Liquid−Liquid Equilibria of the Water + Propionic Acid + 1-Butanol System at 303.15 K, J. Chem. Eng. Data., 43: 1039-1042 (1998).
[18] Bekri S., Özmen D., Özmen A., Correlation of Experimental Liquid–Liquid Equilibrium Data for Ternary Systems Using Nrtl and Gmdh-Type Neural Network, J. Chem. Eng. Data., 62: 1797-1805 (2017).
[19] Renon H., Prausnitz J. M., Local Compositions in Thermodynamic Excess Functions for Liquid Mixtures, AIChE J., 14: 135-144 (1968).       
[20] Poling B.E., Prausnitz J.M., O'Connell J.P., "The Properties of Gases and Liquids", Fifth Edition, Mcgraw-Hill Inc, (2001).
[21] Hand D.B., Dinaric Distribution, J. Phys. Chem., 34: 1961-2000 (1929).
[22] Othmer T.F., Tobias P.E., Liquid-Liquid Extraction Data - The Line Correlation, Ind. Eng. Chemistry, 34: 693-696 (1942).
[26] Treybal R.E., "Liquid Extraction", Mcgraw-Hill, New York, (1963).