Attenuation Kinetics and Desorption Performance of artocarpus altilis Seed Husk for Co (II), Pb (II) and Zn (II) Ions

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Pure & Industrial Chemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, NIGERIA

2 Department of Pure & Industrial Chemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, NIGERIA

3 Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, NIGERIA


The potential of Bread Fruit (artocarpus altilis)Seed Husk (BFSH) as low-cost biosorbent for the removal of Pb (II), Zn (II) and Co (II) ions from aqueous solution was investigated. The adsorbent was characterized by the Fourier Transform InfraRed (FT-IR)spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The batch methodology was utilized to determine the effect of pH, metal ion concentration, adsorbent dose, contact time and temperature on biosorption. Data generated were fitted into appropriate isotherm, kinetic and thermodynamic models. The effect of pH showed an increase in adsorption of metals with an increase in pH and an optimum pH of 5.0 was obtained for Pb (II), while 6.0 were obtained for Co (II) and Zn (II) ions biosorption. An equilibrium sorption contact time of 30, 40 and 60 min was obtained for Co (II), Zn (II) and Pb (II) ions respectively. The biosorption of metal ions was in the order Co (II) > Pb (II) > Zn (II). In general, the Freundlich model provided a better fit than the Langmuir, Tempkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models with R2 values greater than 0.9. The pseudo-first-order kinetic model was applicable in the adsorption of Pb (II) and Zn (II) ions while the pseudo-second-order model provided the best fit for Co (II) ion adsorption. The adsorption mechanism was found to be controlled by the liquid film diffusion model (R2>0.9) rather than the intraparticle diffusion model (R2<0.9). Thermodynamics revealed a spontaneous, feasible, exothermic physisorption process and over 60% of the metal ions were desorbed using 0.1M HCl and 0.1M NaOH as eluent. The results showed that BFSH could be utilized as low cost adsorbent for the removal of toxic heavy metals from solution.


Main Subjects

[1] Kobya M., Demirabis E., Senturk E., Ice M., Adsorption of Heavy Metals Ions From Aqueous Solution by Activated Carbon Prepared from Apricot Stone, Bioresource Technol., 96: 1518-1521 (2005).
[2] Dawodu F.A., Akpomie K.G., Ogbu I.C., Application of Kinetic Rate Equations on the Removal of Copper (II) Ions by Adsorption unto Aloji Kaolinite Clay Mineral, Inter. J. Multidisc. Sci. Eng., 3:21-26 (2012).
[3] Barka N., Abdennouri M., Makhfouk M.E., Qouezal S., Biosorption Characteristics of Cadmium and Lead Onto eco-Friendly Dried Cactus (opuntia ficus indica) Cladodes,  J. Environ. Chem. Eng., 1: 144-149 (2013).
[5] Etukudoh A.B., Akpomie K.G., Obi N.D., Chimezie P.E., Agbo A.E., The Potential of a Natural Clay Mineral (nsu clay) for the Adsorption of Lead (II) Ions From Aqueous Stream, Der Pharma Chemica, 8: 9-15 (2016).
[6] Dawodu F.A., Akpomie K.G., Simultaneous Adsorption of Ni (II) and Mn (II) Ions From Aqueous Solution unto Nigerian Kaolinite Clay, J. Mater. Res.  Technol., 3:129-141 (2014).
[12] Santamarina J.C., Klein K.A., Wang Y.H., Prencke E., Specific Surface: Determination and Relevance, Can. Geotech. J.,  39: 233-241 (2002).
[13] Mall D.I., Srivastava V.C., Agarwal N.K., Removal of Orange-G and Methyl Violet Dyes by Adsorption onto Bagasse Fly Ash-Kinetic Study and Equilibrium Isotherm Analysis, Dyes and Pigments 69: 210-223 (2006).
[15] Ekpete O.A., Horsfall J.M., Preparation and Characterization of Activated Carbon From Fluted Pumpkin Stem Waste, Res. J. Chem. Sci., 3: 10-17 (2011).
[17] Taffarel S.R., Rubio J., On the Removal of Manganese Ions by Adsorption unto Natural and Activated Chilean Zeolites, Miner. Eng., 22: 336-343 (2009).
[18] Unuabonah E.I., Adebowale K.O., Olu-Owolabi B.I., Yang L.Z., Kong L.X., Adsorption of Pb (II) and Cd (II) from Aqueous Solution unto Sodium Tetraborate Modified Kaolinite Clay: Equilibrium and Thermodynamic Studies, Hydrometallurgy, 93:1-9 (2008).
[19] Akpomie K.G., Dawodu F.A., Treatment of an Automobile Effluent from Heavy Metal Contamination by an Eco Friendly Montmorillonite, J. Advanced Res., 6: 1003-1013 (2015).
[20] Kumar A., Prasad B., Mishra I.M., Isotherm and Kinetic Studies for Acrylic Acid Removal Using Powdered Activated Carbon, J. Hazard. Mater., 176: 774-783 (2010).
[22] Yadav S.K., Singh D.K., Sinha S., Chemical Carbonization of Papaya Seed Originated Charcoals for Sorption of Pb (II) From Aqueous Solution, J. Environ. Chem. Eng., 2:9-19 (2014).
[23] Tsai W.T., Chen H.R., Removal of Malachite Green From Aqueous Solution Using Low Cost Chlorella Based Biomass, J. Hazard. Mater. 175: 844-849 (2010).
[24] Erdem E., Karapinar N., Donat R., The Removal of Heavy Metal   Cations by Natural Zeolites, J. Colloid Interfac. Sci. 280:309-314 (2004).
[26] Gautam R.K., Mudhoo A., Lofrano G., Chattopadhyaya M.G., Biomass Derived Biosorbents for Metal Ions Sequestration: Adsorbent Modification and Activation Methods and Adsorbent Regeneration, J. Environ. Chem. Eng., 2: 239-259 (2014).
[27] Langmuir I., The Adsorption of Gases on Plane Surfaces of Glass, Mica and Platinum, J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 40: 1361-1403 (1918).
[28] Nimmala A.R., Lakshimipathy R., Sarada N.C., Application of citrullus lanatus rind as Biosorbent for Removal of Trivalent Chromium From Aqueous Solution, Alexand. Eng. J., 53: 969-975 (2014).
[29] Yang L., Chen P., Biosorption of Hexavalent Chromium onto Raw and Chemically Modified Sargassum sp, Bioresource Technol., 213: 208-216 (2007).
[30] Freundlich H.M.F., Over the Adsorption in Solution. J. Phys. Chem., 57: 385-471 (1906).
[31] Argun M. E, Dursun S, Ozdemir C, Karatas M., Heavy Metal Adsorption by Modified Oak Sawdust: Thermodynamics and Kinetics, J. Hazard. Mater., 141: 77-85 (2007).
[32] Temkin M.I., Pyzhev V., Kinetics of Ammonia Synthesis on Promoted Iron Catalyst, Acta. Physicochem., 12: 327-400 (1940).
[33] Akpomie K.G., Dawodu F.A., Adebowale K.O., Mechanism on the Sorption of Heavy Metals From Binary Solution by a Low Cost Montmorillonite and Its Desorption Potential, Alexand. Eng. J., 54: 757-767 (2015).
[34] Meitei M.D., Prasad M.N., Lead (II) and Cadmium (II) Biosorption on Spirodela Polyrhiza (L) Schleiden Biomass, J. Environ. Chem. Eng., 1: 200-207 (2013).
[35] Li Y., Xia B., Zhao Q., Liu F., Zhang P., Du Q., Wang D., Li D., Wang Z., Xia Y., Removal of Copper Ions From Aqueous Solution by Calcium Alginate Immobilized Kaolin, J. Environ. Sci., 23: 404-411 (2011).
[36] Ahluwalia S.S., Goyal D., Microbial and Plant Derived Biomass for Removal of Heavy Metals From Wastewater, Bioresource Technol., 98: 2243-2257 (2007).
[37] Nomanbhay S.M., Palanisamy K., Removal of Heavy Metals From Industrial Wastewaters Using Chitosan Coated Oil Palm Shell Charcoal, Elect. J. Biotechnol., 8: 43-53 (2005).
[38] Shi Z., Zou P., Guo M., Yao S., Adsorption Equilibrium and Kinetics of Lead ion Onto Synthetic Ferrihydrites, Iran. J. Chem. Chem. Eng. (IJCCE), 34(3): 25-32 (2015).
[39] Marziyeh S.M., Somajeh R., Mahmoud T., Cadmium Removal From Aqueous Solution Using Saxaul Tree Ash, Iran. J. Chem. Chem. Eng. (IJCCE), 35(3): 45-52 (2016).
[40] Mandal S., Sahu M.K., Patel R.K., Adsorption Studies of Arsenic (III) Removal From Water by Zirconium Polycrylamide Hybrid Materials, Water Res. Ind., 4: 51-67 (2013).
[41] Amer M.W., Khalil F.I., Awwad A.M., Adsorption of Lead, Zinc and Cadmium Ions on Polyphosphate-Modified Kaolinite, J. Environ. Chem. Ecotoxicol., 2: 001-008 (2010).
[42] Gupta V.K., Jain C.K., ImranA., Sharma M., Saini V.K., Removal of Cadmium and Nickel From Wastewater Using Bagasse fly Ash- a Sugar Industry Waste,  Water Research, 37: 4038-4044 (2003).        
[43] Omar E.A., Neama A.R., Maha M.E., A Study of the Removal Characteristics of Heavy Metals from Wastewater by Low Cost Adsorbents, J. Advance. Res., 2: 297-303 (2011).
[44]  Zenasni M.A., Benfarhi S., Merlin A., Molina S., Meroufel B., Adsorption of Cu (II) on Maghnite from Aqueous Solution: Effect of pH, Initial Concentration, Interaction Time and Temperature, Natural Science, 4: 856-868 (2012).
[46] Ekere N.R., Agwogie A.B., Ihedioha J.N., Studies of Biosorption of Pb, Cd and Cu from Aqueous Solution Using Adasonia Digita Root Powders, Inter. J. Phytoremed., 18: 116-125 (2015).
[47] Nwadiogbu J.O., Okoye P.A.C., Ajiwe V.I.E, Nnaji N.J.N., Hydrophobic Treatment of Corn Cob by Acetylation: Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies, J. Environ. Chem. Eng., 2: 1699-1704 (2014).
[48] Vinod V.T.P., Sashidhar R.B., Sukumar A.A., Competitive Adsorption of Toxic Heavy Metal Contaminants by Gum Kondagogu: a Natural Hydrocolloid, Colloids  Surf. B, 75: 490-495 (2010).