Catalytic Performance and Characterization of Promoted K-La/ZSM-5 Nanocatalyst for Biodiesel Production

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Razi University, P. O. Box 6714967346 Kermanshah, I.R. IRAN

2 Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah, I.R. IRAN


The promoted K-La nanocatalysts supported on ZSM-5 zeolite were prepared via wetness impregnation method and tested for biodiesel production from soybean oil. The effects of different weight percentage of La, loading of K as a promoter and calcination conditions on structure and activity of catalyst were investigated. Results showed that the supported catalyst containing 7wt.% of La was promoted with 1wt.% of K is an optimal catalyst for biodiesel production. The best operational conditions were the CH3OH/oil=12/1 molar ratio at 60˚C with mechanical stirring 500 rpm for 3 h. The biodiesel yield reached 90% under the optimal operational conditions. It was found that K-La/ZSM-5 nanocatalyst have high basic sites and catalytic activity for biodiesel production. Characterization of catalysts was carried out by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform-InfraRed(FT-IR) spectroscopy and N2 adsorption-desorption measurements methods.


Main Subjects

[2] Feyzi M., Shahbazi, Z., Preparation, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies of Al–Sr Nanocatalysts for Biodiesel Production, J. Taiwan. Inst. Chem. Eng., 71: 145-155 (2017).
[3] Leung D,Y., Wu X., Leung M., A Review on Biodiesel Production Using Catalyzed Transesterification, Appl. Energy, 87: 1083-1095 (2010).
[5] Patil P.D., Gude V.G., Deng S., Biodiesel Production from Jatropha Curcas, Waste Cooking, and Camelina Sativa Oils, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 48: 10850-10856 (2009).
[6] Salamatinia B., Hashemizadeh Iman., Zuhairi A A., Alkaline Earth Metal Oxide Catalysts for Biodiesel Production from Palm Oil: Elucidation of Process Behaviors and Modeling Using Response Surface Methodology,Iran. J. Chem. Chem. Eng. (IJCCE), 32: 113-126 (2013).
[7] Sharma Y.C., Singh B., Upadhyay S.N., Advancements in Development and Characterization of Biodiesel: a Review, Fuel., 87: 2355-2373 (2008).
[8] Meher L.C., Sager D.V., Naik S.N., Technical Aspects of Biodiesel Production by Transesterification A Review, Renew Sust Energy Rev., 10: 248-268 (2006).
[10] Granados M.L., Poves M.D.Z., Alonso D.M., Mariscal R., Galisteo F. C., Tost, R.M., Biodiesel from Sunflower Oil by Using Activated Calcium Oxide, Appl. Catal B., 73: 317-326 (2007).
[11] Gryglewicz S., Rapeseed oil Methyl Esters Preparation Using Heterogeneous Catalysts, Bioresour. Technol., 70: 249-253 (1999).
[12] Liu X.J., He H.Y., Wang Y.J., Zhu S.L., Piao X.L., Transesterification of Soybean Oil to Biodiesel Using CaO as a Solid Base Catalyst, Fuel., 87: 216-221 (2008).
[13] Kouzu M., Kasuno T., Tajika M., Sugimoto Y., Yamanaka S., Hidaka J., Active phase of Calcium Oxide Used as Solid Base Catalyst for Transesterification of Soybean Oil with Refluxing Methanol, Appl. Catal A., 334: 357-365 (2008).
[14] Kouzu M., Kasuno T., Tajika M., Sugimoto Y., Yamanaka S., Hidaka J., Calcium Oxide as a Solid Base Catalyst for Transesterification of Soybean Oil and its Application to Biodiesel Production, Fuel., 87: 2798-2806 (2008).
[15] Ngamcharussrivichai C., Benjapornkulaphong S., Bunyakiat, K., Al2O3-Supported Alkali and Alkali Earth Metal Oxides for Transesterification of Palm Kernel Oil and Coconut Oil, Chem. Eng. J., 145: 468-474 (2008).
[16] Reddy B.M., Patil M.K., Organic Syntheses and Transformations Catalyzed by Sulfated Zirconia, Chem. Rev., 109: 2185-2208 (2009).
[18] Feyzi M., Mirzaei AA., Preparation and Characterization of CoMn/TiO2 Catalysts for Production of Light Olefins, Iran. J. Chem. Chem. Eng. (IJCCE), 30: 17-28 (2011)
[19] Sasidharam, M., Kumar R., Transesterification Over Various Zeolites under Liquid-Phase Conditions, J. Mol. Catal. A. Chem., 210: 93-98 (2004).
[22] Gaudino M.C., Valentin R., Brunel D., Fajula F., Quignard F., Riondel A., Titanium-Based Solid Catalysts for Transesterification of Methyl-Methacrylate by 1-Butanol: the Homogeneous Catalysis Contribution, Appl. Catal A., 280: 157-164 (2005).
[23] Georgogianni K G., Katsoulidis A P., Pomonis P J., Kontominas M G., Transesterification of Soybean Frying Oil to Biodiesel Using Heterogeneous Catalysts, Process. Technol., 90: 671-676 (2009).
[24] Shu Q., Yang B., Yuan H., Qing S., Zhu G., Synthesis of Biodiesel from Soybean Oil and Methanol Catalyzed by Zeolite Beta Modified with La3+, Catal. Commun., 8: 2159-2165 (2007).
[25] Bournay L., Casanave D., Delfort B., Hillion G., Chodorge J A., New Heterogeneous Process for Biodiesel Production: A Way to Improve the Quality and the Value of the Crude Glycerin Produced by Biodiesel Plants, Catal. Today., 106: 190-192 (2005).
[26] Di Serio M., Tesser R., Pengmei L., Santacesaria, E., Heterogeneous Catalysts for Biodiesel Production, Energ. Fuels., 22: 207-217 (2008).
[29] Alonso D M., Mariscal R.. Granados M.L., Maireles-Torres P., Biodiesel Preparation Using Li/CaO Catalysts: Activation Process and Homogeneous Contribution, Catal. Today., 143: 167-171 (2009).
[30] Wen L., Wang Y., Lu D., Hu S., Han H., Preparation of KF/CaO Nanocatalyst and Its Application in Biodiesel Production from Chinese Tallow Seed Oil, Fuel., 89: 2267-2271 (2010).
[31] Hu S., Guan Y., Wang Y., Han H., Nano-Magnetic Catalyst KF/CaO–Fe3O4 for Biodiesel Production, Appl. Energy., 88:2685-2690 (2011).
[32] Klug H P., Alexander L E., “X-Ray Diffraction Procedures: For Polycrystalline and Amorphous Materials”, 2nd ed., Wiley New York, (1974).
[33] Bancquart S., Vanhove C., Pouilloux Y., Barrault, J., Glycerol Transesterification with Methyl Stearate Over Solid Basic Catalysts: I. Relationship between Activity and Basicity, Appl. Catal A., 218: 1-11 (2001).
[34] Sato S., Takahashi R., Kobune M., Gotoh H., Basic Properties of Rare Earth Oxides, Appl. Catal A., 356: 57-63 (2009).
[35] Pasupulety N., Gunda K., Liu Y., Rempel G L., Ng F T T., Production of Biodiesel from Soybean Oil on CaO/Al2O3 Solid Base Catalysts, Appl. Catal A., 452: 189-202 (2013).
[36] Sun H., Ding Y., Duan J., Zhang Q., Wang Z., Lou H., Zheng X., Transesterification of Sunflower Oil to Biodiesel on ZrO2 Supported La2O3 Catalyst, Bioresource. Technol., 101: 953-958 (2010).
[37] Vieira S.S., Magriotis Z.M., Santos N.A., Saczk A.A., Hori C E., Arroyo P A., Biodiesel Production by Free Fatty Acid Esterification Using Lanthanum (La3+) and HZSM-5 Based Catalysts, Bioresource. Technol., 133: 248-255 (2013).
[39] Kaur R., Singh S., Pandey O P., FTIR Structural Investigation of Gamma Irradiated BaO–Na2O–B2O3–SiO2 Glasses, Condens. Matter., 407: 4765-4769 (2012).
[40] Kim H.J., Kang B.S., Kim M.J., Park U.M., Kim D.K., Lee J S., Transesterification of Vegetable Oil to Biodiesel Using Heterogeneous Base Catalyst, Catal. Today., 93: 315-320 (2004).
[41] Zhang S., Yuan-Gang Z., Yu-Jie F., Meng L., Dong-Yang Z., Efferth T., Rapid Microwave-Assisted Transesterification of Yellow Horn Oil to Biodiesel Using a Heteropolyacid Solid Catalyst, Bioresource. Technol., 101: 931-936 (2010).
[43] Wenlei X., Xiaoming H., Synthesis of Biodiesel from Soybean Oil Using Heterogeneous KF/ZnO Catalyst, Catal Lett., 107, 53-59 (2006).
[45] Srivastava A., Prasad R., Triglycerides-Based Diesel Fuels, Renew. Sust. Energy. Rev., 4:111-133 (2000).
[46] Zhang L., Sheng B., Xin Z., Liu Q., Sun S., Kinetics of Transesterification of Palm Oil and Dimethyl Carbonate for Biodiesel Production at the Catalysis of Heterogeneous Base Catalyst, Bioresource. Technol., 101: 8144-8150 (2010).
[47] Suryaputra W., Winata I., Indraswati N., Ismadji S., Capiz W., Waste Capiz (Amusium cristatum) Shell as a New Heterogeneous Catalyst for Biodiesel Production, Renw. Energ., 50: 795-799 (2013).
[48] Felizardo P., Neiva Correia M J., Raposo I., Mendes J.F., Berkemeier R., Bordado J M., Production of Biodiesel from Waste Frying Oils,Waste. Manage., 26: 487-494 (2006).
[49] Jitputti J., Kitiyanan B., Rangsunvigit P., Bunyakiat K., Attanatho L., Jenvanitpanjakul. P., Transesterification of Crude Palm Kernel Oil and Crude Coconut Oil by Different Solid Catalysts, Chem. Eng J., 116: 61-66 (2006). 
[50] Leung D.Y.C., Guo Y., Transesterification of Neat and Used Frying Oil: Optimization for Biodiesel Production, Fuel. Process. Technol., 87:883-890 (2006).
[51] Wang Y., Pengzhan S., Zhang Z., Preparation of Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil via Two-Step Catalyzed Process, Energy. Convers. Manage., 48: 184-188 (2007).
[52] Fengxian Q., Yihuai L., Dongya Y., Xiaohua L., Ping S., Heterogeneous Solid Base Nanocatalyst: Preparation, Characterization and Application in Biodiesel Production, Bioresource. Technol., 102: 4150-4156 (2011).
[54] Ramírez-Verduzco L.F., García-Flores, B.E., Rodríguez-Rodríguez J.E., Jaramillo-Jacob A.d.R., Prediction of the Density and Viscosity in Biodiesel Blends at Various Temperatures, Fuel., 90: 1751-1761 (2011).