An Integrative Model of Beet Juice-Based Productions of Amino Acids Using Ion Chromatography Technique and High-Amino Acid Beet Pulp with Sugar Manufacturing

Document Type : Research Article


Chemical Engineering Department, Higher Institute for Engineering & Technology, Alexandria, EGYPT


To investigate the impact of the different geometry and physical conditions parameters on the industrial process of amino acids recovery from sugar beet thin juice (TJ), several techniques such as computational fluid dynamics and scale-down approaches have been applied. Process modeling can support the design and optimization of all these processes. The Model, considering the process operative parameters and process stoichiometry, using the data from the Egypt Beet Sugar Industry, gives an estimation of the process efficiency, product quality, selectivity as well and the condition for an optimal yield. Combining the results obtained by the model with the data obtained by the scale-down devices, the optimal process configuration and all requirements of the fluid sugar were simultaneously identified in an early phase of development for the subsequent processes of sugar manufacturing. In this case, the choice of an ion exchanger is associated with the development of a method for extracting an amino acid based on the study of the dynamic patterns of sorption and desorption, depending on several factors. These include the shape of the ion exchanger, the degree of its granulation and cross-linking; parameters of ion-exchange columns; flow rate and temperature of working solutions; and efficiency of the eluent. Furthermore, to maximize the utilization of the amino acids extract was added to the Sugar Beet Pulp (SBP) to produce High Amino acid Beet Pulp (HABP) with a high nutritional value and subsequently high marketing value. The results of this paper provide useful information for the design and modeling of beet juice-based production of amino acids integrated with beet processing for sugar production.


Main Subjects

[1] Kent J.A., Godshall M.A., “Kent and Riegel’s Handbook of Industrial Chemistry and Biotechnology”, Springer, Boston (2007).
[2] Schügerl K., “Solvent Extraction in Biotechnology”, Springer, Berlin (1994).
[4] Lin S.-H., Chen C.-N., Juang R.-S., Extraction Equilibria and Separation of Phenylalanine and Aspartic Acid from Water with Di (2-Ethylhexyl) Phosphoric AcidJournal of Chemical Technology Biotechnology, 81: 406-412 (2006).
[6] Goodban A.E., Stark J.B., Owens H.S., Amino Acids Content of Sugar Beet Processing Juices, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 1(3): 261-264 (1953).
[7] Asadi M., “Beet-Sugar Handbook in sugar beet processing”, (2. Ed.), John Wiley & Sons, New Jersey (2007).  
[8] Arajshirvani M., Hojjatoleslami M., The Effects of Chemical Purification on the Color of Thin and Thick Juices in Sugar Beet Factories, Nutrition and Food Sciences Research, 4: 35-41 (2017).
[9] Faurie R., Thommel J., Bathe B., Debabov V.G., Huebner S., Ikeda M., Kimura E., Marx A., Möckel B., Mueller U., Pfefferle W., “Microbial Production of L-Amino Acids”, (1. Ed.), Springer, Berlin (2003). 
[10] Zhang J., Zhang S., Yang X., Qiu L., Gao B., Li R., Chen J., Reactive Extraction of Amino Acids Mixture in Hydrolysate from Cottonseed Meal with di (2-ethylhexyl) Phosphoric Acid, Journal of Chem. Technology Biotechnology, 91: 483–489 (2016).
[11] Renneberg R., Berkling V., Vanya Loroch V., “Biotechnology for Beginners”, (2. Ed.), Elsevier Inc., (2016).
[12] Ivanov K., Stoimenova A., Obreshkova D., Saso L., Biotechnology in the Production of Pharmaceutical Industry Ingredients: Amino Acids, Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment, 27: 3620-3626 (2013).
[13] Ogata Y., Inaishi M., Preparation of DL-Alanine by the Reaction of (±)-2-cholopropionic Acid with Aqueous Ammonia under Pressure, Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan, 54: 3605-3606 (1981).
[14] Inoue M., Enomoto S., Ammonolysis of Trichloroethylene to Glycine, Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan, 55: 33-35 (1982).
[15] Gröger H., Catalytic Enantioselective Strecker Reaction and Analogous Syntheses, Chemical Reviews, 103: 2795-2828 (2003).
[16] Zuend S.J., Coughlin M.P., Lalonde M.P., Jacobsen E.N., Scaleable Catalytic Asymmetric Strecker Syntheses of Unnatural Alpha-Amino Acids, Nature, 461:  968– 970 (2009).
[17] Hauer B., Breuer M., Ditrich K., Habicher T., Keßeler M., Stürmer R., Zelinski T., Industrial Methods For the Production of Optically Active Intermediates, Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 43: 788–824 (2004).
[18] Zhao G., Gong G., Wang P., Wang L., Liu H., Zheng Z., Enzymatic Synthesis of L-Aspartic Acid by Escherichia Coli Cultured with a Cost-Effective Corn Plasm Medium, Annals of Microbiology, 64: 1615–1621 (2014).
[19] Liu Y.-S., Dai Y.-Y., Distribution Behavior of Α-Amino Acids and Aminobenzoic Acid by Extraction with Trioctylamine, Separation Science and Technology, 38: 1217-1230 (2003).
[21] Heinzle E., Biwer A.P., Cooney C.L., “Development of Sustainable Bioprocesses: Modeling and Assessment”, John Wiley & Sons, New Jersey (2006). 
[23] Rosenberg E., DeLong E.F., Lory S., Stackebrandt E., Thompson F., “The Prokaryotes”, (4. Ed.), Springer, Berlin (2013).
[24] Walls D., Loughran S.T., “Protein Chromatography”, (2. Ed.), Humana, New York (2017).
[25] D'Este M., Alvarado-Morales M., Angelidaki I., Amino acids Production Focusing on Fermentation Technologies – A Review, Biotechnology Advances, 36: 14-25 (2018).
[26] Inna P., Irina G., Nadezhda G., Larisa M., Sergey S., Natalia L., Igor S., Automatic Control System for Ion-Exchange Sorption In Industrial Production of Amino Acids as Bioprotective Factors, Proceedings of the International Conference on Actual Issues of Mechanical Engineering (AIME), 179-186 (2018).
[27] Latimer G.W., “Official Methods of Analysis”, (20. Ed.), Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC International), Washington (2016).
[28] Carta G., Jungbauer A., “Protein Chromatography: Process Development and Scale-up”, Wiley -VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim (2010).  
[29] Nfor B.K., Noverraz M., Chilamkurthi S., Verhaert P.D.E.M., van der Wielen L.A.M., Ottens M., High-Throughput Isotherm Determination and Thermodynamic Modeling of Protein Adsorption on Mixed Mode Adsorbents, Journal of Chromatography A, 1217: 6829 – 6850 (2010).
[30] Kloetzer L., Blaga A.C., Postaru M., Galaction A.I., Cascaval D., Selective Separation of Aminoacids Mixture by Reactive Extraction and Pertraction, 4th International Conference on Food Engineering and Biotechnology (IPCBEE), 64-68 (2013).
[31] Passmore R., Pellett P.L., Young V.R., Nutritional Evaluation of Protein Foods, Experimental Agriculture, 18: 167 (2008).
[32] Hu X.H., Wu Y.M., Wang X.W., Principal Component Analysis and Comprehensive Evaluation of Amino Acid In Different Varieties of Sugar Beet, Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin, 32: 69-75 (2016).
[33] Hu X.-H., Jian-Zhou C., Hong-Yang Z., Comprehensive Evaluation of Different Sugar Beet Varieties by Using Principal Component and Cluster Analyses, Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1176 042021 (2019).
[34] Ghada H.M., Mostafa M.A., Khalil N.S.A.M., Manal M., Manufacturing Amino Acids Biofertilizers from Agricultural Wastes. I- Usage of Tomatoes and Sugar Beet Straw to Prepare Organic Synthesized Fertilizers, Egyptian Journal of Soil Science, 53: 461-474 (2013).
[36] Varaee M., Honarvar M., Eikani M.H., Omidkhah M.R., Moraki N., Supercritical fluid Extraction of Free Amino Acids from Sugar Beet and Sugar Cane Molasses, The Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 144: 48-55 (2019).
[39] Foster B.L., Dale B.E., Doran-Peterson J.B., Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Ammonia -Treated Sugar Beet Pulp, Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 91: 269–282 (2001).
[40] Bąk P., Antczak-Chrobot A., Wojtczak M., Distribution of Nitrogen Compounds In Important Sections of Sugar Beets, Biotechnology and Food Science, 80: 53-61 (2016).
[41] Minarovicova L., Michaela L., Zlatica K., Jolana K., Dominika D., Veronika K., Qualitative Properties of Pasta Enriched with Celery Root and Sugar Beet by-Products, Czech Journal Food Sciences, 36: 66-72 (2018).
[42] Mahn K., Hoffmann C.M., Märländer B., Distribution of Quality Components in Different Morphological Sections of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.), European Journal of Agronomy, 17: 29-39 (2002).
[43] Boisen S., Hvelplund T., Weisbjerg M.R., Ideal Amino Acid Profiles as a Basis for Feed Protein Evaluation, Livestock Production Science, 64: 239-251 (2000).
[44] Corzo A., Moran E.T., Hoohler D., Lysine Need of Heavy Broiler Males Applying the Ideal Protein Concept, Poultry Science, 81: 1863-1868 (2002).
[45] Labadan M.C., Hsu K.-N., Austic R.E., Lysine and Arginine Requirements of Broiler Chicken at Two to Three Week Intervals to Eight Weeks of Age, Poultry Science, 80: 599-606 (2001).