Synthesis and Aromatic Diamine Intercalation of Graphene Oxide to Tailor the Electrochemical Properties

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Chemistry, Lahore Garrison University, Lahore, PAKISTAN

2 Department of Chemistry, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad, PAKISTAN

3 Department of Chemistry, University of Education, Lahore, PAKISTAN

4 Department of Physics, Islamia College Peshawar, KPK, PAKISTAN

5 Advance Analytical Labs, Research & Development Department, CCL Pharmaceuticals, Lahore, PAKISTAN


Graphene Oxide has been synthesized using Hummer’s method by the oxidation of graphite powder using reagents like potassium permanganate, Sulphuric acid, hydrogen peroxide, and distilled water at low temperatures. The filtered suspension of graphene oxide was changed to a dry powder at room temperature. Synthesized Graphene oxide was further modified by functionalizing using diamine 2,6-bis(4-aminophenoxy)benzonitrile (BAAP) by ultrasonication and reflux methodology, air-cooled mixture was washed with the equimolar ratio of ethanol and water which was dried at room temperature and followed by drying in the oven at 80 oC. The sample was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) which confirmed all required functional groups and proved the functionalization and modification of Graphene Oxide. Further, UV-Visible spectroscopy confirmed the slight reduction of graphene oxide by the redshift which is due to the chromophoric effect of diamine. X-ray diffraction also confirmed the expected d-spacing due to the covalent reduction of graphene oxide by shifting the peak position towards higher 2θ values. The cyclic voltammetry results are in a quasi-rectangular shape, due to the pseudocapacitance behaviour of diamine functionalized graphene oxide; successfully synthesised and functionalized graphene oxide showed electrochemical stability and an increase in capacitance with an increase in scan rates which is the promising property for supercapacitance to ensure energy storage and conservation.


Main Subjects

[1] Aliyev E., Filiz V., Khan M.M, Lee Y.L., Abetz C., Abetz V., Structural Characterization of Graphene Oxide: Surface Functional Groups and Fractionated Oxidative Debris, Nanomaterials, 9(8): 1180 (2019).
[4] Gupta D.K., Rajaura R.S., Sharma K., Synthesis and Characterization of Graphene Oxide Nanoparticles and their Antibacterial Activity, Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol., 1(1): 16-24  (2015).
[5] Ramesh P., Pitchaimani J., Amalraj Sh., Koutavarapu R., One-Pot Eco-Friendly Synthesis and Supercapacitor Applications: Simultaneously Oxidation and Intercalation of Iodinated Graphene Oxide, Diamond and Related Materials, 127: 109140 (2022).
[6] Abalyaeva V.V., Dremova N.N., Baskakova Y.V., Kabachkov E.N., Baskakov S.A., Efimov O.N., Electrochemical Synthesis of Coatings Based on Polydiphenylamine-2-carboxylic Acid on Anodized Graphite Foil Modified by Graphene Nanosheets and Manganese Oxides, Russian Journal of Electrochemistry, 58(5): 398-410 (2022).
[7] Chaiyakun S., Witit-Anun N., Nuntawong N., Chindaudom P., Oaew S., Kedkeaw C., Limsuwan P., Preparation and Characterization of Graphene Oxide Nanosheets, Procedia Engineering, 32: 759-764 (2012).
[9] Deng M., Yang X., Silke M., Qiu W., Xu M., Borghs G., Chen H., Electrochemical Deposition of Polypyrrole/ Graphene Oxide Composite on Microelectrodes Towards Tuning the Electrochemical Properties of Neural Probe, Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 158(1): 176-184 (2011).
[10] Dikin D.A., Stankovich S., Zimney E.J., Piner R.D., Dommett G.H.B., Evmenenko G., Nguyen S.B.T., Ruoff R.S., Preparation and Characterization of Graphene Oxide Paper, Nature, 448(7152): 457-460  (2007).
[11] Venugopal G., Krishnamoorthy K., Mohan R., Kim S.-J., An Investigation of the Electrical Transport Properties of Graphene-Oxide Thin Films, Materials Chemistry and Physics, 132(1): 29-33 (2012).
[12] Kumar H.V., Woltornist S.J., Adamson D.H., Fractionation and Characterization of Graphene Oxide By Oxidation Extent Through Emulsion Stabilization,  Carbon, 98: 491-495 (2016).
[13] Lin Y., Jin J., Song M., Preparation and Characterisation of Covalent Polymer Functionalized Graphene Oxide, Journal of Materials Chemistry, 21(10): 3455-3461 (2011).
[14] Liu J., Cui L., Losic D., Graphene and Graphene Oxide as New Nanocarriers for Drug Delivery Applications, Acta Biomaterialia, 9(12): 9243-9257 (2013).
[15] Maslekar N., Zetterlund P.B., Kumar P.V., Agarwal V., Mechanistic Aspects of the Functionalization of Graphene Oxide with Ethylene Diamine: Implications for Energy Storage Applications, ACS Applied Nano Materials, 4(3): 3232-3240 (2021).
[16] Park S., Suk J.W., An J., Oh J., Lee S., Lee W., Potts J.R., Byun J.-H., Ruoff R.S., The Effect of Concentration of Graphene Nanoplatelets on Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Reduced Graphene Oxide Papers, Carbon, 50(12): 4573-4578 (2012).
[17] Sharma N., Sharma V., Jain Y., Kumari M., Gupta R., Sharma S.K., Sachdev K., Synthesis and Characterization of Graphene Oxide (GO) and Reduced Graphene Oxide (rGO) for Gas Snsing Application, In Macromolecular Symposia, 376(1): 1700006 (2017).
[18] Asleshirin S., Mazaheri H., Omidkhah Nasrin M.R., Hassani Joshaghani A., Investigation of Thermophysical Properties of Io Nanofluids Containing Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene, Iran. J. Chem. Chem. Eng. (IJCCE), 41(2): 380-391 (2022).
[19] Shekarabi A.S., Monajjemi M., Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Glucose–Graphene Hybrid for Increasing the Natural Gas Storage, Iran. J. Chem. Chem. Eng. (IJCCE), 41(2): 392-398 (2022).
[20] Hammal R., Abdelhak O.A., Benharref A., Chekroun A., Jaafar A., Badry J., El Hamidi S., Abdennouri M., Computational Study of the Mechanism and Reactivity of-Himachalene in Presence of Carbenes Using DFT, Iranian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (IJCCE), 41(2): 410-416 (2022).
[21] Dali N., Ouadjenia F., Marouf R., Synthesis of New Organo-Inorgano-Clay MaterialsBased on Metal Ions, CTMAB, and Bentonite. Application for Removal of Acid Dye, Iran. J. Chem. Chem. Eng. (IJCCE), 41(2): 431-445 (2022).