Effect of Portland Cement on the Development of Unfired Compressed Earth Bricks; Special Application as Construction Material in Poor Territory of Pakistan

Document Type : Research Article


1 Center for Materials Science, Islamia College University 25120 Peshawar PAKISTAN

2 Department of Physics, Islamia College University, 25120 Peshawar, PAKISTAN

3 Department of Environmental Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Balikesir University, Balikesir, TURKEY

4 National Center of Excellence in Physical Chemistry, University of Peshawar, 25120 Peshawar, PAKISTAN


Compressed Earth Bricks (CEBs) are the main constituents used in building materials like the pillar which holds the whole building. Scientists are struggling to produce stronger materials with the least cost and much more efficient strength. CEB products can very easily bear comparison with other materials such as the sand-cement block or the fired brick. Compressed Stabilized Earth Blocks (CSEBs) are environmentally friendly as these blocks are un-burnt and are economically cheap. These blocks required less labor with respect to fired bricks, so one can prepare them easily. To make CEB’s water resistant and durable 8%, 10%, and 12% cement as a stabilizer is added to the dry soil. The compressive strength measured was much better and increased with an increase in cement content i.e. 17.71MPa for 8% cement additive, 18.334MPa for 10%, and 21.229MPa for 12% as compared to commercially fired clay bricks which are up to 13MPa. The compressive strength increases with an increase in cement proportion. By studying the XRD analysis it was observed that Calcium Aluminum Silicate Hydrate (CASH) peak intensity increases by adding cement to the dry soil. However, crystallinity size decreases. The elemental composition shows that quartz and calcite are the major constituents of these samples which gives them better compressive strength. Hence unfired compressed earth bricks are environmentally friendly and cost-effective by using a very minute amount of cement i.e. 8% and its compressive strength is high as compared to fired clay brick.


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