Optimization of Bitter Almond Oil (BAO) Extraction Conditions Using Natural Enzymes and Ultrasound Waves

Document Type : Research Article


Department of Food Science and Technology, Sahneh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sahneh, I.R. IRAN


Non-edible oils are typically applied for multiple uses, especially biofuel production. But, finding new methods that can maximize the extraction of vegetable oils is urgently needed. In this work, natural enzymes present in kiwi fruit and ginger along with the ultrasound waves method were used to extract Bitter Almond Oil (BAO). Important factors affecting extraction were optimized using response surface methodology (Box-Behnken design). Under optimum conditions, the maximum extracted oil with an average of 62.1 wt.% oil/seed was extracted from the bitter almond kernel, which was only 0.87% less than the predicted value by the equation. The optimum conditions were: pH=4.74, Kiwi-Ginger juice to almond of 11.3 mL/g (22.6 mL ethanol), incubation temperature of 52 °C, ultrasonic power of 257 watts, and ultrasonic time of 38 min. The results confirmed the validity of the model. The applied technique in this investigation is economically cost-effective and highly efficient which can be widely used in the edible oil industry due to the absence of toxic and hazardous substances.


Main Subjects

[2] Hosseini S., Moradi G., Bahrami K., Acidic Functionalized Nanobohemite: An Active Catalyst for Methyl Ester Production, International Journal of Chemical Reactor Engineering, 17(11): 1-11 (2019).
[3] Hosseini S., Moradi G., Bahrami K., Methyl Ester Production In Microchannel Using a New Grafted Basic Ionic Liquid as the Nanocatalyst, Chemical Papers, 76(2): 661-679 (2022).
[4] Mohadesi M., Moradi G., Davoodbeygi Y., Hosseini S., Soybean Oil Transesterification Reactions in the Presence of Mussel Shell: Pseudo-First Order Kinetics. Iranian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (IJCCE), 37(4): 43-51 (2018).
[5] Ogino C., Amoah J., "Energy Production: Biodiesel", "Yeast Cell Surface Engineering", Springer, p: 43-61 (2019).
[6] Gebremariam S., Marchetti J., Economics of Biodiesel Production, Energy Conversion and Management, 168: 74-84 (2018).
[8] Sharma M.P., Selection of Potential Oils for Biodiesel Production, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 56: 1129-1138 (2016).
[9] Arumugam A., Ponnusami V., Biodiesel Production From Calophyllum Inophyllum Oil a Potential Non-Edible Feedstock: An Overview, Renewable Energy, 131: 459-471 (2019).
[10] Talavari R., Hosseini S., Moradi G., Low-Cost Biodiesel Production Using Waste Oil and Catalyst, Waste Management & Research, 39(2): 250-259 (2021).
[11] Vijay Kumar M., Veeresh Babu A., Ravi Kumar P., Producing Biodiesel from Crude Mahua Oil by Two Steps of Transesterification Process, Australian Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 17(1): 2-7 (2019).
[13] Yadav A. K., Pal A., Ghosh U., Gupta S. K., Comparative study of Biodiesel Production Methods from Yellow Oleander Oil and Its Performance Analysis on an Agricultural Diesel Engine, International Journal of Ambient Energy, 40(2): 152-157 (2019).
[14] Mosonik B.C., Kibet J.K., Ngari S.M., Nyamori V. O., Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals and Particulate Emissions from the Thermal Degradation of Croton Megalocarpus Biodiesel, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25(25): 24807-24817 (2018).
[15] Agu C.M., Menkiti M.C., Nwabanne J.T., Onukwuli O.D., Comparative Assessment of Chemically Modified Terminalia Catappa L. Kernel Oil Samples– A Promising Ecofriendly Transformer Fluid, Industrial Crops and Products, 140: 111727-111735 (2019).
[16] Matthäus B., Özcan M.M., Quantitation of Fatty Acids, Sterols, and Tocopherols in Turpentine (Pistacia terebinthu s Chia) Growing Wild in Turkey, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54(20): 7667-7671 (2006).
[17] Zhang L., Zhao M., Chen J., Wang M., Yu X., Reduction of Cyanide Content of Bitter Almond and Its Oil Using Different Treatments, International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 54(11): 3083-3090 (2019).
[18] Čolić S., Zec G., Natić M., Fotirić-Akšić M., Almond (Prunus dulcis) Oil, Fruit Oils: Chemistry and Functionality. Springer, 149-180 (2019).
[19] Hosseinzadeh M., Moayedi A., Chudar Moghaddas H., Rezaei K., Nutritional, Anti-Nutritional, and Antioxidant Properties of Several Wild Almond Species from Iran, Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 21(2): 369-380 (2019).
[20] Gil Solsona R., Boix C., Ibáñez M., Sancho J. V., The Classification of Almonds (Prunus Dulcis) by Country and Variety Using UHPLC-HRMS-Based Untargeted Metabolomics, Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A, 35(3): 395-403 (2018).
[21] Smith S., Hogan J., Trade in Fresh Fruit, Fresh Vegetables and Tree Nuts, Agricultural Commodities, 6(2): 116-125 (2016).
[22] Bialek A., Bialek M., Jelinska M., Tokarz A., Fatty Acid Profile of New Promising Unconventional Plant Oils for Cosmetic Use, International journal of cosmetic science, 38(4): 382-388 (2016).
[23] Song W., Yang R., Wu T., Wu C., Sun S., Zhang S., Jiang B., Tian S., Liu X., Han T., Analyzing the Effects of Climate Factors on Soybean Protein, Oil Contents, and Composition by Extensive and High-Density Sampling in China, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 64(20): 4121-4130 (2016).
[24] Regitano Neto A., Miguel A.M.R.D.O., Mourad A.L., Henriques E.A., Alves R.M.V., Environmental Effect on Sunflower Oil Quality, Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology, 16(3): 197-204 (2016).
[25] Özcan M.M., Ghafoor K., Al Juhaimi F., Ahmed I.A.M., Babiker E.E., Effect of Cold-Press and Soxhlet Extraction on Fatty Acids, Tocopherols and Sterol Contents of the Moringa Seed Oils, South African Journal of Botany, 124: 333-337 (2019).
[26] Tesfaye B., Tefera T., Extraction of Essential Oil from Neem Seed by Using Soxhlet Extraction Methods, International Journal of Advanced Engineering, Management and Science, 3(6): 646-650 (2017).
[27] Soares J.F., Dal Prá V., de Souza M., Lunelli F.C., Abaide E., da Silva J.R., Kuhn R.C., Martínez J., Mazutti M.A., Extraction of Rice Bran Oil Using Supercritical CO2 and Compressed Liquefied Petroleum Gas, Journal of Food Engineering, 170: 58-63 (2016).
[28] Goula A.M., Ververi M., Adamopoulou A., Kaderides K., Green Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Carotenoids from Pomegranate Wastes Using Vegetable Oils, Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 34: 821-830 (2017).
[30] Rezaeepour R., Heydari R., Ismaili A., Ultrasound and Salt-Assisted Liquid–Liquid Extraction as an Efficient Method for Natural Product Extraction, Analytical Methods, 7(7): 3253-3259 (2015).
[32] Saykova I., Tylkowski B., Popovici C., Peev G., Extrction of Phenolic and Flavonoid Compounds from Solid Wastes of Grape Seed Oil Production by Cold Pressing, Journal of Chemical Technology & Metallurgy, 53(2): 177-190 (2018).
[33] Wu L., Wang L., Qi B., Zhang X., Chen F., Li Y., Sui X., Jiang L., 3D Confocal Raman Imaging of Oil-Rich Emulsion from Enzyme-Assisted Aqueous Extraction of Extruded Soybean Powder, Food Chemistry, 249:16-21 (2018).
[34] Menkiti M.C., Agu C.M., Udeigwe T.K., Extraction of Oil from Terminalia Catappa L.: Process Parameter Impacts, Kinetics, and Thermodynamics, Industrial Crops and Products, 77: 713-723 (2015).
[35] Liu L., Yu X., Zhao Z., Xu L., Zhang R., Efficient Salt‐Aided Aqueous Extraction of Bitter Almond Oil, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 97(11): 3814-3821 (2017).
[36] Zhong J., Wang Y., Yang R., Liu X., Yang Q., Qin X., The Application of Ultrasound and Microwave to Increase Oil Extraction from Moringa Oleifera Seeds, Industrial Crops and Products, 120: 1-10 (2018).
[37] Peng L., Ye Q., Liu X., Liu S., Meng X., Optimization of Aqueous Enzymatic Method for Camellia Sinensis Oil Extraction and Reuse of Enzymes in the Process, Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 128(6): 716-722 (2019).
[38] Polmann G., Badia V., Frena M., Teixeira G. L., Rigo E., Block J.M., Feltes M.M.C., Enzyme-Assisted Aqueous Extraction Combined with Experimental Designs Allows the Obtaining of a High-Quality and Yield Pecan Nut Oil, LWT, 113: 108283-108290 (2019).
[39] Gavahian M., Chu Y.H., Mousavi Khaneghah A., Recent Advances in Orange Oil Extraction: An Opportunity for the Valorisation of Orange Peel Waste a Review, International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 54(4): 925-932 (2019).
[40] Bagheri Kakash S., Hojjatoleslamy M., Babaei G., Molavi H., Kinetic Study of the Effect of Kiwi  Fruit Actinidin on Various Proteins of Chicken Meat, Food Science and Technology, 39: 980-992 (2019).
[41] Singh P.K., Shrivastava N., Ojha B., Enzymes in the Meat Industry, Enzymes in Food Biotechnology. 2019, Elsevier, 111-128 (2019).
[42] Baranowska-Wójcik E., Szwajgier D., Characteristics and Pro-Health Properties Of Mini Kiwi (Actinidia arguta), Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology, 60(2): 217-225 (2019).
[43] Olaniran A.F., Abiose S.H., Nutritional Evaluation of Enhanced Unsieved Ogi Paste with Garlic and Ginger, Preventive Nutrition and Food Science, 24(3): 348-356 (2019).
[44] Sahoo N., Mishra S., Swain R., Acharya A., Pattnaik S., Sethy K., Sahoo L., Effect of Turmeric and Ginger Supplementation on Immunity, Antioxidant, Liver Enzyme Activity, Gut Bacterial Load and Histopathology of Broilers, Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 89(7): 70-75 (2019).
[45] Agu C.M., Menkiti M.C., Ekwe E.B., Agulanna A.C., Modeling and Optimization of Terminalia Catappa L. Kernel Oil Extraction Using Response Surface Methodology and Artificial Neural Network, Artificial Intelligence in Agriculture, 4:1-11 (2020).
[46] Jibril S., Basar N., Sirat H.M., Wahab R.A., Mahat N.A., Nahar L., Sarker S.D., Application of Box–Behnken design for Ultrasound‐Assisted Extraction and Recycling Preparative HPLC for Isolation of Anthraquinones from Cassia Singueana, Phytochemical Analysis, 30(1): 101-109 (2019).
[47][Hu B., Wang H., He L., Li Y., Li C., Zhang Z., Liu Y., Zhou K., Zhang Q., Liu A., Liu S., A Method for Extracting Oil from Cherry Seed by Ultrasonic-Microwave Assisted Aqueous Enzymatic Process and Evaluation of its Quality, Journal of Chromatography A, 1587: 50-60 (2019).
[48] Liu Z., Gui M., Xu T., Zhang L., Kong L., Qin L., Zou Z., Efficient Aqueous Enzymatic-Ultrasonication Extraction of Oil from Sapindus Mukorossi Seed Kernels, Industrial Crops and Products, 134: 124-133 (2019).
[49] Goula A.M., Papatheodorou A., Karasavva S., Kaderides K., Ultrasound-Assisted Aqueous Enzymatic Extraction of Oil from Pomegranate Seeds, Waste and Biomass Valorization, 9(1): 1-11 (2018).
[50] Agu C.M., Kadurumba C.H., Agulanna A.C., Aneke O.O., Agu I.E., Eneh J.N., Nonlinear Kinetics, Thermodynamics, and Parametric Studies of Colocynthis Vulgaris Shrad Seeds Oil Extraction, Industrial Crops and Products, 123: 386-400 (2018).
[51] Özcan M.M., Matthäus B., Quantification of Sterol Contents in Almond (Prunus amygdalus L.) Oils, Iranian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (IJCCE), 39(2): 203-206 (2020).
[52] Özcan M.M., Ünver A., Erkan E., Arslan D., Characteristics of Some Almond Kernel and Oils, Scientia Horticulturae, 127(3): 330-333 (2011).
[53] Oliveira I., Meyer A.S., Afonso S., Aires A., Goufo P., Trindade H., Gonçalves B., Phenolic and Fatty Acid Profiles, Α‐Tocopherol and Sucrose Contents, and Antioxidant Capacities of Understudied Portuguese Almond Cultivars, Journal of Food Biochemistry, 43(7): 1-12 (2019).