Comparing the Antibacterial Properties of Ziziphora clinopodioides Essential Oil in Free and Encapsulated States in Minced Beef Contaminated with Salmonella typhimurium

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, North Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, I.R. IRAN

2 Avicenna Health Incubator Center, Avicenna Research Institute, Tehran, I.R. IRAN


Salmonella is among the most common foodborne pathogens that affect millions of people annually, sometimes with severe and fatal outcomes. In recent years, significant efforts have been made to develop natural antibacterial compounds, such as essential oils. Based on GC/MS analysis, Pulegone (33.10 %), Carvacrol (10.60 %), Piperitenone (9.33 %), Eucalyptol (8.01 %), -Terpineol (5.46 %) and L-Menthone (4.79 %) were the major components of phytochemicals of Ziziphora clinopodioides essential oil (ZEO). Encapsulation of ZEO using maltodextrin and gum arabic as wall in ratio of 1:1 with ZEO concentrations of 30 % (w/w) and 2.5 % (w/w) was done by spray drying method. The research results showed that, if the concentration of essential oil increased, the antimicrobial properties increased. The microbial population in the encapsulated ZEO treatment was lower than in the free ZEO treatment. The lowest inhibitory effect of ZEO was related to the concentration of 0.25 % (w/w) in the free state. The highest inhibitory effect of ZEO was related to the concentration of 1% (w/w) in the encapsulated state. The bacterial inhibitory property at the concentration of 0.5 % ZEO (w/w) in the free state was approximately equal to the concentration of 0.25 % ZEO (w/w) in the encapsulated state. The inhibitory properties of bacteria at concentration of 1 % (w/w) in the free state was better than the concentrations of 0.25 and 0.5 % (w/w) in the encapsulated state. Based on the results, formulation of ZEO in minced beef can prolong its shelf life and control microbial changes during storage at 4 oC. ZEO is insoluble in water, but a water-soluble microcapsule can be produced using this method. ZEO can be used as a natural and effective preservative for reducing pathogenic bacteria and increasing the shelf life of food.


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