Investigation of Manganese Ion Removal from Waters Using Sewage Sludge Ash

Document Type : Research Article


1 Atatürk University, Department of Environmental Engineering, 25240, Erzurum, TURKEY

2 Bayburt University, Department of Emergency Aid and Disaster Management, 69000, Bayburt, TURKEY

3 Iğdır University, Department of Environmental Engineering, 76000, Iğdır, TURKEY


In this study, the removal of Mn2+ ions from waters by the adsorption method using ash obtained from a treatment plant sludge burning unit, which is treatment plant waste and mostly disposed of in a landfill, was investigated. By determining the most suitable conditions for adsorption, adsorption kinetics, isotherms, and thermodynamic values were determined. In the experiments, 63.9% removal efficiency was achieved using 10 g/L adsorbent concentration for 10 mg/L Mn+2 under optimum conditions. As a result of the research, it was determined that the adsorption proceeds according to the pseudo-second-degree reaction and abides by the Langmuir isotherm. The thermodynamic constants of ΔH°= -4.866 kJ/mol and ΔS°= 21.44 J/mol were determined. As a result of this, the reaction was exothermic, spontaneous, and random, and adsorption was physical adsorption. As a result of the study, sewage sludge ash can be used in the treatment of water containing low concentrations of Mn2+.


Main Subjects
[2] Jarup L., Hazards of Heavy Metal Contamination, British Medical Bulletin, 68(1):167-182 (2003).
[3] Barakat M.A., New Trends in Removing Heavy Metals from Industrial Wastewater, Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 4(4): 361-377 (2011).
[4] Jaishankar M., Tseten T., Anbalagan N., Mathew B.B., Beeregowda K.N., Toxicity, Mechanism and Health Effects of Some Heavy Metals, Interdisciplinary Toxicology, 7(2): 60-72 (2014).
[6] Aslam B., Javed I., Khan H.F., Rahman Z., Uptake of Heavy Metal Residues from Sewage Sludge in the Goat and Cattle During Summer Season, Pak. Vet. Journal, 31: 75-77 (2011).
[7] Duffus J.H., Heavy Metals: A Meaningless Term (IUPAC Technical Report), Pure. Appl. Chem., 74: 793-807 (2002).
[8] Yang Y., Ali H., Khan E., Ilahi I., Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology of Hazardous Heavy Metals: Environmental Persistence, Toxicity, and Bioaccumulation, Journal of Chemistry, 2019: 6730305 (2019).
[9] Men C., Liu R., Xu L., Wang Q., Guo L., Miao Y., Shen Z., Source-Specific Ecological Risk Analysis and Critical Source Identification of Heavy Metals in Road Dust in Beijing, China, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 388: 121763 (2020).
[10] Rahman M.S., Khan M.D.H., Jolly Y.N., Kabir J., Akter S., Salam A., Assessing Risk to Human Health for Heavy Metal Contamination Through Street Dust in the Southeast Asian Megacity: Dhaka, Bangladesh, Science of the Total Environment, 660: 1610-1622 (2019).
[11] Lakherwal D., Adsorption of Heavy Metals: A Review, International Journal of Environmental Research and Development, 4(1): 2249–3131 (2014).
[13] Farooq M., Anwar F., Rashid U., Appraisal of Heavy Metal Contents in Different Vegetables Grown in the Vicinity of an Industrial Area, Pak. J. Bot., 40: 2099-106 (2008).
[14] Wang J., Chen C., Biosorption of Heavy Metals by Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Biotechnol. Adv., 24: 427-51 (2006).
[15] Kul Z.E., Nuhoglu Y., Kul S., Nuhoglu Ç., Torun F.E., Mechanism of Heavy Metal Uptake by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance and FT-IR: Enhanced Manganese(II) Removal onto Waste Acorn of Quercus Ithaburensis, Separation Science and Technology, 51(1): 115-125 (2016)
[16] Chen P., Culbreth M., Aschner M., Exposure, Epidemiology, and Mechanism of the Environmental Toxicant Manganese, Environ. Sci. Pollution Research, 23: 13802–13810 (2016).
[17] Sain A.E., Griffin A., Dietrich A.M., Assessing taste and Visual Perception of Mn(II) and Mn(IV), JAWWA, 106(1): 32-40 (2014).
[18] Neculita C.M., Rosa E., A Review of the Implications and Challenges of Manganese Removal from Mine Drainage, Chemosphere, 214: 491-510 (2019).
[19] Cai Y., Li D., Liang Y., Luo Y., Zeng H., Zhang J., Effective Start-Up Biofiltration Method for Fe, Mn, and Ammonia Removal and Bacterial Community Analysis, Bioresource Technology, 176: 149-155 (2015).
[20] Hoyland V., Knocke W.R., Falkinham J.O., Pruden A., Singh G., Effect of pH on Biological Removal of Manganese in Surface Water Treatment Plants, Water Research, 66:31-39 (2014).
[21] Li C., Wang S., Du X., Cheng X., Fu M., Hou N.,  Li D., Immobilization of Iron- and Manganese-Oxidizing Bacteria with a Biofilm-Forming Bacterium for the Effective Removal of Iron and Manganese from Groundwater, Bioresour. Technol., 220: 76–84 (2016).
[22] Alvarez-Bastida C., Martínez-Miranda V., Solache-Ríos M., Linares-Hernández I., Teutli-Sequeira A., Vázquez-Mejía G., Drinking Water Characterization and Removal of Manganese. Removal of manganese from Water, Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 6(2): 2119-2125 (2018).
[23] Hsieh S-H., Horng J-J., Adsorption behavior of Heavy Metal Ions by Carbon Nanotubes Grown on Microsized Al2O3 Particles, J. Univ. Sci. Technol. Beijing, Mineral, Metallurgy, Material, 14(1): 77-84 (2007).
[24] Stafiej A., Pyrzynska K., Adsorption of Heavy Metal Ions with Carbon Nanotubes, Microchemical Journal, 89:1 (2008).
[25] Lesmana S.O., Febriana N., Soetaredjo F.E., Sunarso J., Ismadji S., Studies on Potential Applications of Biomass for the Separation of Heavy Metals from Water and Wastewater, Biochemical Engineering Journal, 44: 19–41 (2009).
[26] Verma R., Dwivedi P., Heavy Metal Water Pollution- A Case Study, Recent Research in Science and Technology, 5(5): 98-99 (2013).
[27] Vries D., Bertelkamp C., Kegel F.S., Hofs B., Dusseldorp J., Bruins J.H., de Vet W., van den Akker B., Iron and Manganese Removal: Recent Advances in Modelling Treatment Efficiency by Rapid Sand Filtration, Water Research, 109: 35-45 (2017).
[28] Rudi N.N., Muhamad M.S., Chuan L.T., Alipal J., Omar S., Hamidon N., Abdul Hamid N.H., Sunar N.M., Ali R., Harun H., Evolution of Adsorption Process for Manganese Removal in Water Via Agricultural Waste Adsorbents, Heliyon, 6(9): e05049 (2020).
[29] Aziz H.A., Tajarudin  H.A., Wei1  T.H.L., Alazaiza M.Y.D., Iron and Manganese Removal from Groundwater Using Limestone Flter with Iron Oxidized Bacteria, International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, (2020).
[30] Nguyen V.K., Ha M.-G., Kang H.Y., Nguyen D.D., Biological Manganese Removal by Novel Halotolerant Bacteria Isolated from River Water, Biomolecules, 10: 941 (2020).
[31] Fu F., Wang Q., Removal of Heavy Metal Ions from Wastewaters: A Review, Journal of Environmental Management, 92(3): 407-418 (2011).
[32] Meena A.K., Mishra G.K., Rai P.K., Rajagopal C., Nagar P.N., Removal of Heavy Metal Ions from Aqueous Solutions Using Carbon Aerogel as an Adsorbent, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 122: 161-170 (2005).
[34] Ali I., Gupta V.K., Advances in Water Treatment by Adsorption Technology, Nat. Protoc., 1: 2661–2667 (2006).
[35] Pyrzynska K., Removal of Cadmium from Wastewaters with Low-Cost Adsorbents, Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 7: 1 (2019).
[36] Zhu J., Li Y., Xu L., Liu Z., Removal of toluene from Waste Gas by Adsorption-Desorption Process Using Corncob-Based Activated Carbons as Adsorbents, Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 165: 115-125 (2018).
[37] Pavlík Z., Fořt F., Záleská M., Pavlíková M., Trník, A., Medved I., Keppert M., Koutsoukos P.G., Černý R., Energy-Efficient Thermal Treatment of Sewage Sludge for its Application in Blended Cements, Journal of Cleaner Production, 12(1):409-41 (2016).
(38) Hao X., Chen Q., van Loosdrecht M.C.M., Li J., Jiang H., Sustainable Disposal of Excess Sludge: Incineration without Anaerobic Digestion, Water Research, 170: 115298 (2020).
[38] Werther J., Ogada T., Sewage Sludge Combustion, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 25(1): 55-116 (1999).
[39] Lin K-L., Chiang K-Y., Lin D-F., Effect of Heating Temperature on the Sintering Characteristics of Sewage Sludge Ash, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 128(2-3): 175-181 (2006).
[40] Świerczek L., Cieślik B.M., Konieczka P., The potential of Raw Sewage Sludge in Construction Industry – A Review, Journal of Cleaner Production, 200:342-356 (2018).
[41] Ooi T.Y., Yong E.L., Md Din M.F., Rezania S., Aminudin E., Chelliapan S., Abdul Rahman A., Park J., Optimization of Aluminium Recovery from Water Treatment Sludge Using Response Surface Methodology, Journal of Environmental Management, 228:13-19 (2018).
[42] Ahmad T., Ahmad K., Ahad A., Alam M., Characterization of Water Treatment Sludge and its Reuse as Coagulant, Journal of Environmental Management, 182: 606-611 (2016).
[43] Pan S-C., Lin C-C., Tseng D-H., Reusing Sewage Sludge Ash as Adsorbent for Copper Removal from Wastewater, Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 39(1): 79-90 (2003).
[45] Yi Z., Liu J., Zeng R., Liu X., Long J., Huang B., Removal of Uranium(VI) From Aqueous Solution by Camellia Oleifera Shell-Based Activated Carbon: Adsorption Equilibrium, Kinetics, and Thermodynamics, Water Science Technology; 82(11): 2592–2602 (2020).
[46] Agarwal S., Tyagi I., Gupta V.K., Ghasemi N., Shahivand  M.,  Ghasemi  M., Kinetics, Equilibrium Studies and Thermodynamics of Methylene Blue Adsorption on Ephedra Strobilacea Saw Dust and Modified Using Phosphoric Acid and Zinc Chloride, Journal of Molecular Liquids, 208: 208-218 (2016).
[47] Ho Y.S., Citation review of Lagergren kinetic rate Equation on Adsorption Reactions, Scientometrics, 59(1): 171-177 (2004).
[48] Freundlich H.M.F., Ueber Die Adsorption in Loesungen, Zeitschrift fr Physikalische Chemie, 57: 385-470 (1907).
[49] Rajahmundry G.K., Garlapati C., Kumar P.S., Alwi R.S., Vo D-V.N., Statistical Analysis of Adsorption Isotherm Models and its Appropriate Selection, Chemosphere, 276:130176 (2021).
[50] Langmuir I., The Adsorption of Gases on Plane Surfaces of Glass, Mica And Platinum, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 40:1361-1403 (1918).
[51] Budhiary K.N.S., Sumantri I., “Langmuir and Freundlich Isotherm Adsorption Using Activated Charcoal from Banana Peel to Reduce Total Suspended Solid (TSS) Levels in Tofu Industry Liquid Waste”, International Conference
on Chemical and Material Engineering (ICCME 2020)”, Semarang, Indonesia,
1053, 012113 (2020).
[52] Brunauer S., Emmett P.H., Teller E., Adsorption of Gases in Multimolecular Layers, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 60(2): 309–319 (1938).
[54] Temkin M., Pyzhev V., Kinetics of Ammonia Synthesis on Promoted Iron Catalysts, Acta Physicochimica URSS, 12: 327-356 (1940).
[55] Chu, K.H., Revisiting the Temkin Isotherm: Dimensional Inconsistency and Approximate Forms, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 60(35): 13140-13147 (2021).
[56] Jones M.E., Nico P.S., Ying S-R., Tom-Thieme J., Keiluweit M., Manganese-Driven Carbon Oxidation at Oxic–Anoxic Interfaces, Environmental Science & Technology, 52:12349-12357 (2018).
[57] Dada A.O, Olalekan A.P., Olatunya A.M., Dada O., Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin–Radushkevich Isotherms Studies of Equilibrium Sorption of Zn2+ Unto Phosphoric Acid Modified Rice Husk, Journal of Applied Chemistry, 3(1):38-45 (2012).
[59] Wu C., Adsorption of Reactive Dye onto Carbon Nanotubes: Equilibrium, Kinetics and Thermodynamics, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 144: 93-100 (2007).
[61] Nie J., Wang Q., Gao S., Poon C.S., Zhou Y., Li J-S., Novel recycling of Incinerated Sewage Sludge Ash (ISSA) and Waste Bentonite as Ceramsite for Pb-Containing Wastewater Treatment: Performance and Mechanism, Journal of Environmental Management, 288: 112382 (2021).
[62] Elouear Z., Bouzid J., Boujelben N., Removal of Nickel and Cadmium from Aqueous Solutions by Sewage Sludge Ash: Study in Single and Binary Systems, Environmental Technology, 30(6): 561-570 (2009).
[63] Schutte N.S., Stilinović E.J., Facilitating Empathy Through Virtual Reality, Motivation and Emotion, 41: 708–712 (2017).
[64] Shulman B., Dueck R., Ryan D., Breau G., Sadowski I., Misri S., Feasibility of a Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy Group Intervention as an Adjunctive Treatment for Postpartum Depression and Anxiety, Journal of Affective Disorders, 235: 61-67 (2018).
[65] Cohen J., A Power Primer, Psychological Bulletin, 12(1): 155-159 (1992).
[66] Militaru B.A., Pode R., Lupa L., Schmidt W., Tekle-Röttering A., Kazamer N., Using Sewage Sludge Ash as an Efficient Adsorbent for Pb (II) and Cu (II) in Single and Binary Systems, Molecules, (2020).
[67] Coutand M., Cyr M., Clastres P., Use of Sewage Sludge Ash as Mineral Admixture in Mortars, Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers Construction Materials, 159: 153–162 (2006).
[68] Mahieux P.Y., Aubert J.E., Cyr M., Coutand M., Husson B., Quantitative Mineralogical Composition of Complex Mineral Wastes-Contribution of the Rietveld Method, Waste Management, 30: 378–388 (2010).
[69] Chen Z., Li J-S., Zhan B-J., Sharma U., Poon C.S., Compressive Strength and Microstructural Properties of Dry-Mixed Geopolymer Pastes Synthesized from GGBS and Sewage Sludge Ash, Construction and Building Materials, 182: 597-607 (2018).