Simulated Body Fluids Prepared with Natural Buffers and System for Active pH Regulation

Document Type : Research Article


1 University of Belgrade, Innovation Centre of Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Karnegijeva 4, 11120 Belgrade, SERBIA

2 University of Belgrade, Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Mike Petrovića Alasa 12-14, 11001 Belgrade, Serbia and Plasma Jet Co, Braničevska 29, 11000 Belgrade, SERBIA


The current study focuses on creating an initial highly alkaline simulated body fluid whose pH can be decreased to a physiological range by adding CO2 (protein-free simulated body fluid) or a combination of CO2 and human proteins (protein-containing simulated body fluid). The effects of dissolved human proteins, Ca2+ ions, and immersed plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings on the pH and chemical instability of prepared simulated body fluids were investigated. The physiological concentration of dissolved human proteins decreased the pH instability in prepared simulated body fluids by 60% and the physiological concentration of dissolved Ca2+ ions by 15%. The effect of immersing the hydroxyapatite coatings was negligible. In terms of chemical instability, the dissolution of Ca2+ ions caused the blurring of protein-free simulated body fluids after 0.6-1.0 h. In protein-containing simulated body fluids, this phenomenon was undetectable due to their opacity. The effects of human protein presence on the carbonated-apatite-forming ability on the surfaces of immersed hydroxyapatite coatings in the prepared simulated body fluids were also assessed. The experiments validated the bioactivity of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings in the prepared simulated body fluids, regardless of protein presence. On the other hand, under the different experimental conditions (unregulated or regulated pH), the human protein presence had an inhibitory (unregulated pH) or indifferent/promoting (regulated pH) influence on the carbonated-apatite-forming ability. The results of the present study are discussed, as well as the strengths and shortcomings of the prepared simulated body fluids, and are compared to those of previous relevant investigations.


Main Subjects

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