Investigation of Doping Effect on Structural, Optical, Antibacterial, and Toxicity Properties of Iron Doped Copper Oxide Nanostructures Prepared by Co-Precipitation Route

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Physics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, 38040, PAKISTAN

2 Department of Chemistry, Government College University, Faisalabad, PAKISTAN

3 Department of Physics, Riphah International University, Faisalabad, 38000, PAKISTAN


In this work, pure copper oxide and Fe-doped copper oxide nanostructures [Cu1-x FexO where 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.08 in steps of 0.02] were synthesized using the co-precipitation method. Iron nitrate nano-hydrate and copper nitrate trihydrate were used as precursors and NaOH was used as precipitating agent. The samples were investigated by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), and UV-Visible spectroscopy for their structural, morphological, and optical properties, respectively. The effect of iron concentration on antibacterial activity and hemolysis was also investigated for Escherichia coli and Bacillus Subtilis. The XRD pattern showed a single-phase monoclinic structure of CuO nanoparticles. The average crystallite size of pure copper oxide was found 39 nm whereas the average crystallite size of Fe-doped CuO was found in the range 39-44 nm. It was observed that average crystallite size was increased with an increasing iron concentration in CuO. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed spherical-like morphology and EDS confirmed the presence of iron and copper with proper composition. UV-vis spectroscopy results showed that the band gap was decreased with increasing iron concentration. Samples prepared with higher concentrations of iron exhibited high E. coli and B. subtilis antibacterial activity. Low hemolytic is safer to be used in various applications such as drug delivery.


Main Subjects

[1] Salavati-Niasari M., Davar F., Farhadi M., Synthesis and Characterization of Spinel-Type CuAl2O4 Nanocrystalline by Modified Sol-Gel Method, J. of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, 51: 48-52 (2009).
[2] Candelaria S.L., Shao Y., Zhou W., Li X., Xiao J., Zhang J.G., Wang Y., Liu J., Li J., Cao G., Nanostructured Carbon for Energy Storage and Conversion, J. Nano Energy, 1: 195-220 (2012).
[3] Xu Y., Chen D., Jiao X., Fabrication of CuO Pricky Microspheres with Tunable Size by a Simple Solution Route, J. of Physical Chem. B, 109: 13561-13566 (2005).
[4] Zheng S.F., Hu J.S., Zhong L.S., Song W.G., Wan L.J., Guo Y.G., Introducing Dual Functional CNT Networks Into CuO Nanomicrospheres Toward Superior Electrode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries, J. Chem of Materials, 20: 3617-3622 (2008).
[5] Sconza A., Torzo G., Spectroscopic Measurement of the Semiconductor Energy Gap, American J. of Physics, 62: 732-737 (1994).
 [6] Gandhi S., Hari Hara Subramani R., Ramakrishnan T., Sivabalan A., Dhanalakshmi V., Gopinathan Nair M.R., Anbarasan R., Ultrasound Assisted one Pot Synthesis of Nano-Sized CuO and Its Nanocomposite with Poly (vinyl alcohol), J. Mater Sci., 45: 1688-1694 (2010).
[7] Greenwood R., Review of the Measurement of Zeta Potentials in Concentrated Aqueous Suspensions Using Electroacoustics, J. Adv. in Colloid and Interface Sci., 106: 55-81 (2010).
[8] Prajapati C.S., Sahay P.P., Growth, Structure and Optical Characterization of Al‐doped ZnO Nanoparticle Thin Films, J. Crystal Res. and Tech., 46: 1086-1092 (2011).
[9] Mondal S., Effect of Manganese Incorporation in ZnO Thin Films Prepared by SILAR, J. Sci. Soc., 10: 139 (2012).
[10] Liang J., Chen D., Yao X., Zhang K., Qu F., Qin L., Li J., Recent Progress and Development in Inorganic  Halide Perovskite Quantum Dots for PhotoelectrochemicaL Applications, J. Small, 16: 1903398 (2019).
[12] Shen X., Duan L., Li J., Zhang X., Li X., Lü W., Enhanced Performance of Flexible Ultraviolet Photodetectors Based on Carbon Nitride Quantum Dot/ZnO Nanowire Nanocomposites, J. Materials Research Express, 6: 045002 (2019).
[13] Sa R.R., Matos R. A., Silva V. C., da Cruz Caldas J., da Silva Sauthier M. C., dos Santos W.N.L., Júnior A.D.F.S., Determination of Bioactive Phenolics in Herbal Medicines Containing Cynara scolymus, Maytenus ilicifolia Mart ex Reiss and Ptychopetalum Uncinatum by HPLC-DAD, J. Microchemical, 135: 10-15 (2017).
[14] Garbovskiy Y.A., Glushchenko A.V., Liquid Crystalline Colloids of Nanoparticles: Preparation, Properties, and Applications, J. in Solid State Physics, 62: 1-74 (2010).
[15] Hedayati K., Goodarzi M., Ghanbari D., Hydrothermal Synthesis of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles and Flame Resistance Magnetic Poly Styrene Nanocomposite, J. of Nanostructures, 7: 32-39 (2017).
[16] Samson K., Żelazny A., Grabowski R., Ruggiero-Mikołajczyk M., Śliwa M., Pamin K., Lachowska M., Influence of the Carrier and Composition of Active Phase on Physicochemical and Catalytic Properties of Cuag/Oxide Catalysts for Selective Hydrogenolysis of Glycerol, J. Research on Chemical Intermediates, 41: 9295-9306 (2015).
[17] Garnett E., Yang P., Light Trapping in Silicon Nanowire Solar Cells, J. Nano Letters, 10: 1082-1087 (2010).
[18] Arshad M., Ehtisham-ul-Haque S., Bilal M., Ahmad N., Ahmad A., Abbas M., Nisar J., Khan M.I., Nazir A., Ghaffar A., Iqbal M., Synthesis and Characterization of Zn Doped WO3 Nanoparticles: Photocatalytic, Antifungal and Antibacterial Activities Evaluation, J. Materials Research Express, 7: 015407 (2020).
[19] Upadhyay S. B., Mishra R. K., Sahay P. P., Structural and Alcohol Response Characteristics of Sn-Doped WO3 Nanosheets, J. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 193: 19-27 (2014).
[20] Adhikari S., Mandal S., Sarkar D., Kim D.H., Madras G., Kinetics and Mechanism of Dye Adsorption on WO3 Nanoparticles, J. Applied Surface Science, 420: 472-482 (2017).
[21] Anwar H., Rana B.C., Javed Y., Mustafa G., Ahmad M.R., Jamil Y., Akhtar H., Effect of ZnO on Photocatalytic Degradation of Rh B and Its Inhibition Activity for C. Coli Bacteria, J. Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 91: 143-149 (2018).
[22] Jesline A., John N.P., Narayanan P. M., Vani C., Murugan S., Antimicrobial Activity of Zinc and Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Against Biofilm-Producing Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus, J. Applied Nanoscience, 5: 157-162 (2015).
[23] Saqib S., Munis M. F. H., Zaman W., Ullah F., Shah S.N., Ayaz A., Bahadur S., Synthesis, Characterization and Use of Iron Oxide Nano Particles for Antibacterial Activity, J. Microscopy Research and Technique, 82: 415-420 (2019).
[24] Abbas A., Abussaud B.A., Al-Baghli N.A., Khraisheh, M., Atieh M. A., Benzene Removal by Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Decorated Carbon Nanotubes, J. of Nanomaterials, (2016).
[25] Padervand M., Elahifard M. R., Meidanshahi R.V., Ghasemi S., Haghighi S., Gholami M.R., Investigation of the Antibacterial and Photocatalytic Properties of the Zeolitic Nanosized AgBr/TiO2 Composites, J. Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, 15: 73-79 (2012).
[26] Padervand M., Jalilian E., Majdani R., Goshadezehn M., BiOCl/AgCl-BiOI/AgI Quaternary Nanocomposite for the Efficient Photodegradation of Organic Wastewaters and Pathogenic Bacteria under Visible Light, J. of Water Process Engineering, 29: 100789 (2019).
[27] Padervand M., Fasandouz F. M., Beheshti A. [Cu-Ag2] O–C3N4 Nanoframeworks for Efficient Photodegradation of Wastewaters, J. Progress
in Reaction Kinetics and Mechanism
, 44: 175-186 (2019).
[28] Padervand M., Facile Synthesis of the Novel Ag [1-butyl 3-methyl imidazolium] Br Nanospheres for Efficient Photodisinfection of Wastewaters, J. Chemical Engineering Communications, 203: 1532-1537 (2016).
[29] Padervand M., Asgarpour F., Akbari A., Sis B. E., Lammel G., Hexagonal Core-Shell SiO2 [–MOYI] cl–] Ag Nanoframeworks for Efficient Photodegradation of the Environmental Pollutants and Pathogenic Bacteria, J. of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials, 29: 1314-1323 (2019).
[30] Padervand M., Rhimi B., Wang C. One-Pot Synthesis of Novel Ternary Fe3N/Fe2O3/C3N4 Photocatalyst for Efficient Removal of Rhodamine B and CO2 Reduction, J. of Alloys and Compounds, 852: 156955 (2021).
[31] Padervand M., Janatrostami S., Karanji A.K., Gholami M.R., Incredible Antibacterial Activity of Noble Metal Functionalized Magnetic Core–Zeolitic Shell Nanostructures, J. Materials Science and Engineering C, 35: 115-121 (2014).
[32] Santos W.G., Schmitt C.C., Neumann M.G., Polymerization of HEMA Photoinitiated by the Safranine/Diphenylborinate System, J. of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, 252: 124-130 (2013).
[33] Heidarpour H., Padervand M., Soltanieh M., Vossoughi M., Enhanced Decolorization of Rhodamine B Solution Through Simultaneous Photocatalysis and Persulfate Activation over Fe/C3N4 Photocatalyst, Journal Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 153: 709-720 (2020).
 [34] Arokiyaraj S., Saravanan M., Prakash N.U., Arasu M.V., Vijayakumar B., Vincent S., Enhanced Antibacterial Activity of Iron Oxide Magnetic Nanoparticles Treated with Argemone Mexicana L. Leaf Extract: An in Vitro Study, J. Materials Research Bulletin, 48: 3323-3327 (2013).
[35] Lee C., Kim J.Y., Lee W.I., Nelson K.L., Yoon J., Sedlak D.L., Bactericidal Effect of Zero-Valent Iron Nanoparticles on Escherichia Coli, J. Environmental Science & Technology, 42: 4927-4933 (2008).
[36] Khalid S., Afzal N., Khan J. A., Hussain Z., Qureshi A.S., Anwar H., Jamil, Y., Antioxidant Resveratrol Protects Against Copper Oxide Nanoparticle Toxicity in Vivo, J. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology, 391: 1053-1062 (2018).
[37] Kadammattil A.V., Sajankila S.P., Prabhu S., Rao B.N., Rao B.S.S., Systemic Toxicity and Teratogenicity of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles and Copper Sulfate, J. of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 18: 2394-2404 (2018).
[38] Studer A.M., Limbach L.K., Van Duc L., Krumeich F., Athanassiou E.K., Gerber L.C., Moch H., Stark W.J., Nanoparticle Cytotoxicity Depends on Intracellular Solubility: Comparison of Stabilized Copper Metal and Degradable Copper Oxide Nanoparticles, J. Toxicology Letters, 197: 169-174 (2010).
[39] Sreeju N., Rufus A., Philip D. Studies on Catalytic Degradation of Organic Pollutants and Anti-Bacterial Property Using Biosynthesized CuO Nanostructures, J. of Molecular Liquids, 242: 690-700 (2017).
[40] Yin S.Y., Yuan S.L., Tian Z.M., Liu L., Wang C.H., Zheng X. F., Huo S. X., Effect of Particle Size on the Exchange Bias of Fe-Doped CuO Nanoparticles, J. of Applied Physics, 107: 043909 (2010).
[41] Swatsitang E., Karaphun A., Phokha S., Hunpratub S., Putjuso T., Magnetic and Optical Properties of Cu1−xFexO Nanosheets Prepared by the Hydrothermal Method, J. of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, 83: 382-393 (2017).