Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Trace Metals in Some Brands of Sausage Roll in the Nigerian Markets

Document Type : Research Article


Industrial Chemistry Programme, College of Agriculture, Engineering and Sciences, Bowen University, Iwo, NIGERIA


Concentrations of PAHs and trace metals in five selected brands of sausage commonly available in the Nigerian market were determined in this study. The health risk assessment of both PAHs and trace metals was also evaluated. Five different brands of commercially available sausage rolls were purchased from various retail shops in Ibadan, Ijebu Ode, and Iwo markets in Nigeria. Methods: PAHs extraction of the sausage roll samples was carried out with a Soxhlet extractor and clean-up of the extract was done using activated silica gel. The analysis of target analytes including the 16 priority PAHs was performed with Gas Chromatography equipped with Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID), while the concentrations of trace metals were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) after acid digestion of the sausage samples. The concentrations of Ʃ16 PAHs in sausage samples were in the range of 12.5-36.2 µg/g. Benzo (a) pyrene was predominant in all the samples investigated and their concentrations were above 0.001 µg/g limit in processed cereal-based food products as stipulated by the European Commission Regulation. The brands of sausages were mainly polluted with 4- and 5-ring PAHs. The order of increase of PAHs in brands of sausage roll was: SB > YM > GA > BG > RT. The trace metals concentrations (mg/kg) ranged as follows: Zn (1.01-71.0), Cu (ND-8.12), and Cr (ND-16.4). Cd was not detected in all the samples analyzed. Pb ranged from 2.34-13.0 mg/kg infringing the safe limit for cereals and cereal-based food products of 0.3 mg/kg and 0.05 mg/kg as stipulated by the FAO/WHO and European Commission, respectively. Conclusion: This study revealed the occurrence of PAHs and trace metals at varying concentrations in the sausage samples analyzed. Hence, it is imperative to constantly monitor and control the concentrations of these pollutants in sausages since they are usually consumed by school children and youths.


Main Subjects

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