The Effects of Rootstock on the Volatile Flavour Components of Page Mandarin [(C.Reticulata var dancy C. Paradisi var dancan) C. Clemantina] Juice and Peel

Document Type : Research Article


1 Ph.D Student, Science & Research Branch, Islamic Azad University (IAU), Tehran, I.R.Iran

2 Science & Research Branch, Islamic Azad University (IAU) Tehran, I.R. IRAN

3 Citrus Research Station of Ramsar, Ramsar, I.R. IRAN

4 Institute of Medicinal Plants (IMP)-ACECR, Karaj, I.R. IRAN


The effects of rootstock on the volatile flavour components of page mandarin juice and peel were investigated in this study. Juice flavour components were extracted by using Poly dimethyl silaxane  membranes( PDMS ) and eluted by pentane dichloromethane and then analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Peel flavour components were extracted by using cold-press and eluted by using n-hexane and then analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Seventy-five juice components, sixty-eight green peel components and fourty- two red peel  components  including: aldehydes, alcohols, esters, ketons, monoterpens, sesquiterpens and acids were indentified and quantified. The major flavour components were linalool, limonene, octanal, decanal, a-pinene, sabinene, myrcene,- elemen and germacren-D. It is of interest to point out that juice and peel oil from fruit grown on Citrumelo Swingle and Yuzu showed the highest content of aldehydes. Since the aldehyde content of citrus oil is considered as one of the more important indicators of high quality, rootstock apparently has a profound influence on Page Mandarin juice and peel oil quality.


Main Subjects

[1] Nagy, S., Shaw, P., Veldhuis, M. K., “Citrus Science and Technology”, volum 2, Chapter 6, 290 (1977).
[2] Nioroge, S, M., Koaze, H., Mwaniki, M., Minh Tu, N. T. and Sawamura, M., Essential Oils of Kenyan Citrus Fruits: Volatile Components of Two Varieties of Mandarins (Citrus Reticulata) and Tangelo
(C. Paradisi
 C. Tangerina), Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 20, 74 (2005).
[3] Hendrickson, R., Kesterson, J.W. and Cohen, M., The Effect of Rootstock and Bud Wood Selections on the Peel Oil Content of Valencia Oranges, Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc., 83, 259 (1970).
[4] Scora, R. W. and Torrisi, S., Relation of Taxonomic, Climatic and Tissue Maturity Factors to the Essential Oil Constituents in Leaves and Fruits in the Aurantioideae, Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., Proc., 88, 262 (1966).
[5] Kesterson, J.W. and Hendrickson, R., The Composition of Valencia Orange Oil as Related to Fruit Maturity, Am. Perf. Cosmetics, 77(12), 21 (1962).
[6] Kesterson, J. W., Hendrickson, R., Seiler, R. R., Huffman, C. E., Brent, J. A. and Grifflths, J. T., Nootkatone Conten of Expressed Duncan Grapefruit Oil as Related to Fruit Maturity, Am. Perf. Cosmetics, 80(12), 29 (1965).
[7] Verzera,A., Trozzi, A., Gazea, F., Cicciarello, G. and Cotroneo, A., Effect of Rootstock on the Composition of Bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau) Essential Oil, Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 51, 206 (2003).
[8] Usai, M., Arras, G. and Agabbio, M., Changes in Composition on Essential Oils of Peel of Marsh Seedless Grapefruits Grafted on Nine Different Rootstocks, Agr. Med., 124, 256 (1994).
[9] Marsh, G. L, Cameron, S.H. Navel Orange Juice Bitterness, Citrus Leaves, 30(7), 7 (1950).
[10] Marsh, G. L., Bitternes in Navel Orange Juice, Food Technol, 7, 145 (1953).
[11] Adams, R.P. “Identification of Essential Oil Components by Gas Chromatography/ Mass Spectrometry”, Allured Publishing Corporation, Carol Stream, IL  (1995).
[12] “Eight Peak Index of Mass Spectra”, The Mass Spectrometry Data Centre. Reading, U.K. (1974).
[13] Buettner, A., Mestres, M., Fischer, A., Guasch, J., Schieberle, P., Evaluation of the Most Odour-Active Compounds in the Peel oil of Clementine’s (citrus reticulata blanco cv. Clementine), Eur. Food Res. Technol, 216, 11 (2003).
[14] Lopez, A. J. P. and Carbonell - Barrachina, A., Valatile Odour Components and Sensory Quality of Fresh and Processed Mandarin Juices, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 86, 2404 (2006).
[15] Moshonas, M.G. and Shaw, P.E. Quantitation of Volatile Constituents in Mandarin Juices and its Use for Comparison with Orange Juices by Multivariate Analysis, J. Agric. Food. Chem., 45, 3968 (1997).
[16] Ohta, H., Tonohara, K., Watanabe, A., Lino, K. and Kimura, S., Flavor Specificities of Satsuma Mandarin Juice Extracted by a New-Type Screw Press Extraction System, Agric. Biol. Chem., 46 (5), 1385 (1982).
[17] Kenee, Michael, “Fruit Quality and its Biological Basis”, Chapter 4, 89-106 (2002).
[18] Minh. Tu, N. T., Thanh, L. X., Une, A., Ukeda, H. and Sawamura, M., Volatile Constituents of Vietnames Pummelo, Orange, Tangerine and Lime Peel Oils, Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 17, 169 (2002).
[19] Hay, R.K.M. and Waterman, P., “Volatile Oil Crops; Their Biology”, Biochemistry, and Production (1946).