Production of Nanosized Synthetic Rutile from Ilmenite Concentrate by Sonochemical HCl and H2SO4 Leaching

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Chemistry, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, I.R. IRAN

2 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Jiroft University, Jiroft, I.R. IRAN

3 Department of Mining Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, I.R. IRAN


Titanium dioxide is widely used in the manufacturing of paints, varnishes, lacquer, paper, paperboard, printing inks, rubber, floor covering, and ceramics and so on. White titanium dioxide pigment has been produced by two main processes. The sulfate and the chloride processes. Each of these two routes requires different feedstocks. However, economic and environmental pressures are shifting the world balance of titanium dioxide production away from sulphate based manufacture towards the more cost effective and cleaner chloride route. According to usage of titanium dioxide, the nano sized  TiO2 was produced by the sulfuric acid and hydrocholoric acid leaching by using Sonochemical technique during the leaching process. No adding extra materials and no milling after precipitate, no vaporization during the leaching are advantages of this work which reduced the processes of leaching. All of determination techniques of particle size (Zeta Sizer, XRD, SEM, and TEM) prove this matter. The particles sizes of nano TiO2which was leached by HCl and H2SO4 are 83 and 85 nm respectively.


Main Subjects

[1] El-Hazek N., Lasheen T.A., El-Sheikh R., Salah A., Hydrometallurgical Criteria forTiO2 Leaching from Rosetta Ilmenite by Hydrochloric Acid, Hydrometallurgy, 87: 45-50 (2007).
[2] Sasikumar C., Rao D.S., Srikanth S., Ravikumar B., Mukhopadhyay N.K., Mehrotra S.P., Effect of Mechanical Activation on the Kinetics of Sulfuric Acidleaching of Beach Sand Ilmenite from Orissa, India, Hydrometallurgy, 75: 189-204 (2004).
[3] Chernet T., Applied Mineralogical Studies on Australian Sand Ilmeniteconcentrate with Special Reference to its Behavior in the Sulphate Process, Miner. Eng., 12 (5): 485-495 (1999).
[4] Liang B., Li C., Zhang C.G., Zhang Y.K., Leaching Kinetics of Panzhihuailmenitein Sulfuric Acid, Hydrometallurgy, 76: 173-179 (2005).
[5] Kamala K.S., Thomas C.A., Devabrata M., Archana A., An Overview on Theproduction of Pigment Grade Titania from Titania-Rich Slag, Waste Manage. Res., 24: 74-79 (2006).
[6] Natziger R.H., Elger G.W., "Preparation of Titanium Feedstock from Minnesota Ilmenite by Smelting and Sulfation-Leaching", US Bureau of Mines, Report Invest No. 9065, (1987).
[7] Becher R.G., Improved Process for the Beneficiation of Ores Containingcontaminating Iron, Australian Patent 247110, (1963).
[8] Sinha H.N., in: "Proceedings of the Eleventh Commonwealth Mining and Metallurgical Congress, Institute of Mining and Metallurgy", London, pp. 669-672 (1979).
[9] Walpole E.A., The Austpac ERMS and EARS Processes. A Cost Effective Route Tohigh Grade Synthetic Rutile and Pigment Grade TiO2, in: "Heavy Minerals. SAIMM, Johannesburg", pp. 169-174 (1997).
[10] Jagasekera S., Marinovich Y., Avraamides J., Baily S.I., Pressure Leaching Ofreduced Ilmenite, Hydrometallurgy, 39: 183-199 (1995).
[11] Lanyon MR., Lwin T., Merritt R.R., The Dissolution of Iron in the Hydrochloricacid Leach of an Ilmenite Concentrate, Hydrometallurgy, 51: 299-323 (1999).
[12] Van Dyk J.P., Vegter N.M., Pistorius P.C., Kinetics of Ilmenite Dissolution Inhydrochloric Acid, Hydrometallurgy, 65: 31-36 (2002).
[13] Berkovich S.A., Recovery of Titanium from Ores. US Patent 3903239 (1975).
[14] Duyvesteyn W., Sabachy B., Verhulst D., Edmund V., West-sells P.G., Processing Titani Ferrous Ore to Titanium Dioxide Pigment, WO Patent 00531 A1., (2001).
[15] Duyvesteyn W., Spitler T., Sabachy B., Vince A., Prochazka J., Processing Aqueous Solution to Titanium Dioxide Pigment, WO Patent 00530 A1. (2001).
[16] Duyvesteyn W., Spitler T., Sabachy B., Prochazka J., Processing Aqueous Titanium Chloride Solution to Ultrafine Dioxide Pigment, WO Patent 12555 A2. (2001c).
[17] Duyvesteyn W., Sabachy B., Edmund V., Verhulst D., West-sells P.G., Spitler T.M., Vince A., Burkholder J.R., Paulus B.J., Huls M., Processing Titaniferrous ore to Titanium Dioxide Pigment, US Patent 6375923 B1 (2002)
[18] Duyvesteyn W., Spitler T., Sabachy B., Vince A., Prochazka J., Processing Aqueous Solution to Titanium Dioxide Pigment, US Patent 6548039 B1. (2003).
[19] Sakatani Y., Koike H., Kakatani Y., Oike H., Production of Titanium Oxide used as Photocatalyst by Reacting Titanium Compound with Ammonia Exceeding Stoichiometric Amount for Converting Titanium Compound to Titanium Hydroxide, or with base, and Calcining Product. EP Patent 1178011-A (2002).
[20] Sakatani Y., Koike H., Titaniumoxide Production Process, US Patent 6726891-B2 (2004).
[21] Xie R., Shang J.K., "Morphological Control in Solvothermal Synthesis of Titanium", Willey and sons, (2007).
[22] Ellsworth D.K., Verhulst D., Spitler T.M., Sabacky B.J., Titanium Nanoparticles Move to the Marketplace, Chem. Innov., 30: 30-35 (2000).
[23] Spurr R.A., Myers H., Quantitative Analysis of Anatase-Rutile Mixture with an X-Ray Diffractometer, Analytical Chemistry Research, 29: 760-762 (1957).
[24] Cullity B.D., "Elements of X-Ray Diffraction", Third ed, Addison- Wesley, Reading, MA, pp. 102- 284 (1978).
[25] Sivakumar, S., Krishna Pillai, P., Mukundan, P., Warrier, K.G.K., Sol–gel Synthesis of Nanosizedanatase from Titanyl Sulfate, Materials Letters, 57 (2): 330-335 (2002).
[26] Ocaña, M., Fornes, V., Serna, C.J., A simple Procedure for the Preparation of Spherical Oxide Particles by Hydrolysis of Aerosols, Ceramics International, 18 (2): 99-106 (1992).
[27] Bauer, W., Tomandl, G., Preparation of spherical TiO2 Particles by an Emulsion Method Using TiCl4. Ceramics International, 20: 189-193 (1994).