Evaluation of Parameters Influencing Hexavalent Chromium Mist Sampling: A Full Factorial Design

Document Type: Research Note

Authors

1 School of Public Health, Medical Sciences / University of Tehran, Tehran, I.R. IRAN

2 Medical University of Ohio at Toledo, P.O. Box 43614 Ohio, U.S.A

3 School of Public Health, Center for Environmental Research, Medical Sciences / University of Tehran, Tehran, I.R. IRAN

4 School of Chemistry, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14155-8464 Tehran, I.R. IRAN

Abstract

A chromium electroplating bath with the ability to produce homogenous mist was used to evaluate parameters influencing hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) mist sampling methods. The results of 48 Cr+6mist samples collected using the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health method 7600showed that Cr+6concentration was higher: (1) For sampling by closed-face filter cassettes than for sampling by open-face filter cassettes (P <0.001); (2) for samples collected at 35 cm above the electroplating solution surface than for samples collected at 50 cm (P <0.001); (3) for sampling duration of 30 minutes than for sampling duration of 180 minutes (P <0.001); and, (4) for samples extracted immediately after sampling than for samples with delayed extraction (24 hours after sampling) (P <0.001). It is concluded that the accuracy of Cr+6 mist sampling in electroplating shops will be enhanced when: (1) closed-face filter cassette is used to prevent liquid splash contamination; (2) the recommended sampling height is 35 cm above the solution surface; (3) the sampling duration is short--approximately 30 minutes; and, (4) the extraction of the Cr+6 sample is performed as soon as the sampling is completed.  

Keywords

Main Subjects


[1] Soraham, T., Harrington, J.M., Occp. Environ. Med., 57, 385 (2000).

[2] Proctor, D.M., Panko, J.P., Liebig, E.W. et al., Appl. Occup. Environ. Hyg., 18(6), 430 (2003).

[3] Kuo, H.W., Lai, T.I. and Lin, T.I., Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health., 70, 272 (1997).   

[4] Hansen, M. B., Johansen,  J. D., and  Menne, T., Contact Dermatitis, 49, 206 (2003).

[5] Bright, P., Burge, P.S., O’Hickey, S.P. et al., THORAX, 52(1), 28 (1997).

[6] Health and Safety Executive (HSE), “Chromium and you”, [Online]

Available at http://www.hse. gov.uk/pubns/indg346.pdf, (accessed April, 2005).

[7] Pourkhosravi, S., Determination and Evaluation of Hexavalent Chromium Concentration and Local Exhaust Ventilation Design, TehranUniversity of Medical Sciences, MSPH Thesis, (in Persian) (1998).

[8] Shin, Y.C., Pail, N.W., Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J., 61, 563 (2000).

[9] Kuo, H.W., Concentration of Hexavalent and Trivalent Chromium in Electroplating Plants, Mid. Taiwan. J. Med., 8, 199 (2003).

[10] Health and Safety Executive (HSE), Method for the Determination of Hazardous Substances, Total Hexavalent Chromium Compounds in Air. - Colorimetric Laboratory Method Using 1,5-Diphenylcarbazide, HSE Method MDHS 61, HSE Books; Sudbury, UK (1988).

[11] Kenny, L.C., Aitken, R., Chalmers, C. et al., Ann. Occup. Hyg., 41(2), 135 (1997).

[12] Clinkenbeard, R.E., England, E.C., Johnson, D.L. et al., Appl. Occup. Environ. Hyg., 17(9), 622 (2002).

[13] Carpenter, D.R., Chromate Sampling Methods and Data Analysis, US Air Force, September 2001, IERA-RS-BR-TR-2001-0007.

[14] Health and Safety Executive (HSE), Method for the Determination of Hazardous Substances, Hexavalent Chromium in Chromium Plating Mists, Colorimetric Field Method Using 1, 5-Diphenylcarbazide, HSE Method MDHS 52/3, HSE Books; Sudbury, UK (1998).

[15] Kuo, Y. M., Wang, C. S., J. Aerosol. Sci., 33, 297 (2002).

[16] Boiano, J. M., Wallace, M. E., Sieber, W. K. et al., J. Environ. Monit.,  2, 329 (2000).

[17] Tirgar,  A.,  Golbabei,  F., Nourijelyani,  K. et al., J. Braz. Chem. Soc. 17(2), 342 (2006).

[18] National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Manual of Analytical Methods, Method No. 7600, Chromium, Hexavalent, NIOSH, Cin-cinnati, OH (1994).

[19] National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Manual of Analytical Methods, Method No. 7605, Chromium, Hexavalent by Ion Chromato-graphy, NIOSH, Cincinnati, OH (2003).

[20] National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Manual of Analytical Methods, Method No. 7703, Chromium, Hexavalent by Field-Portable Spectrophotometry, NIOSH , Cincinnati, OH (2003).

[21] Bonin M. P., Flower W. L., Renzi R. F. and L.W., Peng., J. Air and Waste Manage. Assoc., 45,.902 (1995).

[22] Kenny, L. C., Aitken, R., Baldwin, P. E. J. et al., J. Aerosol. Sci., 30(5), 627 (1999).

[23] Tsai,  P. J.,  Werner,  M. A.,  Vincent, J. H. and Maldonado, G., Appl. Occup. Environ. Hyg., 11(5), 484 (1996).

[24] Ashley, K., Howe, A.M., Demang, M. and Nygren, O., J. Environ. Monit.,  5, 707 (2003).

[25] Marlow, D., Wang, J.,  Wise, T.J. and Ashley, K., Am. Lab., 32 (15), 26 (2000).

[26] Paik, N.W., Zong, M.S., Lee, K.H. et al., Korean. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J., 3, 110 (1993).