Experimental Study and Simulation of Different EOR Techniques in a Non-Fractured Carbonate Core from an Iranian Offshore Oil Reservoir

Document Type: Research Article


1 Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, I.R. IRAN

2 Arvandan Company, National Iranian Oil Company, Tehran, I.R. IRAN


In this research the experimental and theoretical studies on different Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) techniques, i.e. Water Flooding (WF), Gas Injection (GI) and Water Alternating Gas process (WAG) were performed on specimens taken from an Iranian carbonate offshore reservoir at the reservoir condition. The experimental results for each specified techniques were compared with the corresponding results obtained from a simulation model. In the case of WF and GI, the injection rates were set to be 0.1, 0.2 and 0.5 cc/min while for the WAG experiments, with two WAG ratios 1 and 2 and with 7, 7, and 10 cycles, the injection rates were 0.1, 0.2 and 0.5 cc/min. The results obtained from the experiments revealed that in all cases the amount of recovered oil is increased. Furthermore, the results showed that increase in the recovery of oil is significant in the case of the WAG injection with optimum rate of injection fluids comparing to those of the WF and GI scenarios. It was also pronounced that the recovery of oil with WAG ratio 2 is more than that with ratio 1. It should be mentioned that samples for sea water and pure methane were considered to be as injection fluids. It was also shown that the experimental results can be accurately correlated with a black oil numerical simulator, Eclipse100.


[1] Van Poollen, H.K., “Fundamentals of Enhanced Oil Recovery”, PennWell Books, Tulsa, Oklahoma, (1980).
[2] Christensen, J. R., Stenby, E.H., Lyngby, DTU. and Skauge, Review of WAG Field Experience, SPE, Norsk Hydro ASA,Bergen, (1998).
[3] Nybraaten, G., Svorstoel, and Andfossen, P. O., WAG Pilot Evaluation for the Snorre Flcld,7th European IOR, Moscow, Russia,(1993).
[4] Stenmark, H. and Andfossen, P. O., Snorre WAG Pilot-A Case Study, 8th European IOR, Vienna, Austria, (1996).
[5] Slotte, P. A., Stenrnark, H. and Aurd, T., Snorre WAG Pilot, Norwegian Petroleum Directorate, RUTH 1992 (1996).
[6] Jensen, J., Nesteby, H. and Slotte. P. A., Brage WAG Pilot, Norwegian Petroleum Directorate, RUTH 1992 (1996).
[7] Skauge, A. and Berg, E., Immiscible WAG Injection in the Fensfjord Formation of the Brage Oil Field, paper number 014, from EAGE, 9th European Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, The Hague, 20-22 Oct. (1997).
[8] Skauge, A. and Aarra, M., Effect of Wettability on the Oil Recovery by WAG, Proceedings7th European Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Moscow, (1993).
[9] Skauge, A. and Larsen, J. A., New Approach to Model the WAG Process, Proceedings, 15th International Energy Agency,Collaborative Project on Enhanced Oil Recovery, Workshop and Symposium, Bergen, Norway, 28-31 August, (1994).
[10] Magruder, J. B., Stiles, L.H. and Yelverton, T. D., “A Review for the Means San Andres Unit Full-Scale CO2 Tertiary Project”,SPE 17349, EOR Symposium, Tulsa, (1988).
[11] Prieditis,  J., Wolle, C. R.  and  Notz, P. K., A Laboratory and Field Injectivity Study CO2 WAG In the San Andres Formation of West Texas, SPE 22653, 66th ATCE, Dallas, (1991).
[12] Roper, M. K., Cheng, C. T., Varnon, J. E., Pope, G.A. and Sepehrnoori, K., Interpretation of a CO2 WAG Injectivity Test in the San Anclres Formation Using a Compositional Simulator,SPE 24163, 8th EOR, Tulsa, (1992).
[13] Claridge,  E. L.,  CO2  Flooding  Strategy  in a Communicating Layered Reservoir,JPT Dec. (1982).
[14] Chase Jr., C.A. and Ttid, D., Numerical Simulation of CO2 Flood Performance”,SPE 10514, JPT, Dec. (1984).
[15] Stephenson, D.J., Graham, A.G. and Luhning R, W., Mobility Control Experience in the Joffre Viking Miscible CO2 Flood,SPE Reservoir Engineering, Aug. (1993).
[16] Walker, J.W. and Turner, J. L., Performance of Seelington Zone 20B-07 Enriched-Gas-Drive Project,SPE 1884, JPT, April, (1968).
[17] Robie, Jr., D.R., Roedell, J.W. and Wackowski, R. K., Field Trial of Simultaneous Injection of CO2 and Water, Rangely Weber Sand Unit, Colorado (1998).
[18] Ma, T. D., Rugen, J.A. and Stoisits, R. F., Simultaneous Water and Gas Injection Pilot at the Kuparuk River Field, Reservoir Impact, SPE 30726, ATCE, Dallas, (1995).
[19] Hong, K.C. and Stevens, C. E., Water-Alternating-Steam Process Improves Project Economics at West Coalinga, SPE Res. Eng., November, Texas (1992).
[20] Skauge, A., Simulation Studies of WAG Using Three - Phase Relative Permeability Hysteresis Models, Paper Number 015, Proceeding fromEAGE, 9th European Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery,The Hague, 20-22 Oct. (1997).
[21] Helm, L.W., Propane-Gas-Water Miscible Floods In Watered-Out Areas of the Adena Field,SPE 3774, JPT Oct., (1972).
[22] Watts, R. J., Conner, W. D., Wasson, J.A. and Yost, A.B., CO2 Injection for Tertiary Oil Recovery, Granny’s Creek Field, Clay County, West Virginia, SPE 10693, 3rd EOR, Tulsa, (1982).
[23] Dyes, A, B., Bensimina, A., Saadi, A.M. and Khelil, C., Alternate Injection of HPG and Water, Two Well Pilot, SPE 4082, 47th Annual Fall Meeting,San Antonio, Texas, (1972).