Biodegradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Petroleum Contaminated Soils

Document Type: Research Article

Authors

1 Department of Environmental Health , School of Health, Shahre Kord University of Medical Sciences, Shahre-kord, I.R. IRAN

2 Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Center for Environmental Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, I.R. IRAN

3 Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Lagos, NIGERIA

Abstract

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are a class of potentially hazardous chemicals of environmental and health concern. PAHs are one of the most prevalent groups of contaminants found in soil. Biodegradation of complex hydrocarbon usually requires the cooperation of more than single specie. In this research biotreatment of PAH (phenanthrene) was studied in a solid-phase reactor using indigenous bacteria isolated from two petroleum contaminated sites in Iran, (i.e., Tehran refinery site with clayey-sand soil composition and Bushehr oil zone with silty-sand soil composotion). Phenanthrene (C14H10) was made in three rates (100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg of soil) synthetically and was conducted with two bacterial mixed cultures for a period of 20 weeks. Highest removal (more than 85 %) of phenanthrene with rates of 100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg in clayey-sand soil with BMTRS (Bacterial Mix of Tehran Refinery Site) consortium was achieved within 3, 5 and 14 weeks, respectively as for silty-sand soil composition with BMBOZ (Bacterial Mix of Bushehr Oil Zone) consortium was achieved within 10, 17, and 19 weeks, respectively. Results for phenanthrene biotreatment in solid phase reactor revealed a significance relationship between concentration and type of microbial consortium with the removal efficiency of phenanthrene over the time (P value<0.001). Furthermore, there was a significant relationship between soil type with removal efficiency of phenanthrene over the time (P value=0.022). That means the bioremediation of the lower concentrations of phenanthrene needs shorter time compared with the higher concentrations.  Microbial analysis using confirmative series tests and analytical profile index (API) kit tests showed the Pseudomonas fluorescence, Serratia liquefaciens, Bacillus and Micrococcus strains as dominant bacteria in the mixed cultures. 

Keywords

Main Subjects


[1] Muller, H., Breure, A.M. and Rulkens, W.H., Prediction of Complete Bioremediation Periods for PAHs Soil Pollutants in Different Physical States by Mechanistic Models, Chemosphere, 43, p. 1085 (2004).
[2] Lee, P.K., Ong, S.K., Golchin, J. and Nelson, G.L., Use of Solvents to Enhance PAHs Biodegradation of Coal Tar-Contaminated Soils, Wat Res, 35(16), p. 3941 (2001).
[3] Khodadoust, A.P., Bagchi, R., Suidan, M.T.,Brenner R.C.  and  Sellers,  N.G.,  Removal  of   PAHs   from  Highly Contaminated Soils Found at Prior Manufactured Gas Operations, Journal of Hazardous Materials, B80,p.159 (2000).
[4] Amellal, N., Portal, J. M., Berthelin J., Effect of Soil Structure on Bioavailability of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons within Aggregates of a Contaminated Soil, Applied Geochemistry, 16, p. 1611 (2001).
[5] Michael, D., Aitken, Shu-Hwa Chen, Chikoma Kazunga, and Randall, B., Marx, Bacterial "Biodegradation of High Molecular Weight Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons", SUPERFUND BASIC RESEARCH PROGRAM (http://cmr.sph. unc.edu/SBRP/) (2004).
[6] Aitken, Michael D., Stefan, J., Grim berg Janet Nagel, Robert D., Nagel and William, T., String Fellow, Bacterial Biodegradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) and Potential Effects of Surfactants on PAH Bioavailability, Available at: http://www2.ncsu.edu/ncsu/wrri/reports/report299.html. (2002).
[7] Turlongh, F.G., The Extraction of Aged Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Residues from a Clay Soil Using Sonication and Soxhlet Procedure: A Comparative Study, Environ Monit, 1, p. 63 (1999).
[8] Wong, J.W.C., Lai, K.M., Wan, C.K., Ma, K.K. and Fang, M., Isolation and Optimization of PAH-Degradative Bacteria from Contaminated for PAHs Bioremediation, Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 139, p. 1 (2002).
[9] Yun, T., Tianling, Z. and Xinhong, W., PAHs Contamination and PAH-Degrading Bacteria in Xiamen Western Sea, Chemical Speciation and Bioavailability, Chemical Speciation and Bio-availability, 14, p. 25 (2003).
[10] Arbabi, M., Nasseri, S., Medaghinia, AR., Rezaie, S., Naddafi, K., Omrani, GH. and Yunesian, M., Survey on Physical, Chemical and Microbiological Characteristic  of PAH-Contaminated Soils in Iran, Iranian Jour. Env. Health Sci. Eng. (IJEHSE), 1(1), p. 30 (2004).
[11] Samanta, S.K., Singh O. and Jain, R.K., Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Environmental Pollution and Bioremediation, TRENDS in Biotechnology, 20(6), p. 243 (2002).
[12] Mastrangela, G., Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Cancer in Man, Environ. Health Prespect., 104, p. 1166 (1997).
[13] Falahatphisheh, M.H.,  Antagonistic  Interactions Among Nephrotoxic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydro-carbons, Journal Toxicol. Environ. Health, 62, p. 543 (2001).
[14] Kastner, M., Breuer, M.J. and Mahro, B., Impact of Inoculation Protocols, Salinity, and pH on the Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Survival of PAH-Degrading Bacteria Introduced into Soil, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 64(1), p. 359 (1998).
[15] APHA, AWWA, WEF, "Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater", 20th Ed. Washington (2000).
[16] API  (Analytical  Profile  Index)  20E,  “Manual Procedure for Bacteriological Identification”, #2019 (2000).
[17] Saponaro  Sabrina,  Bonomo  Luca,  Petruzzelli Gianniantonio, Romele Loura, and Barbafieri Meri, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Slurry Phase Bioremediation of a Manufacturing Gas Plant (MGP) Site Aged Soil, Water,Air and Soil Pollution, 134, p. 219 (2002).
[18] ISO/TC 190/SC3, “Soil Quality-General Aspects; Chemical and Physical Methods of Analysis; Biological Methods of Analysis”, ISO Standards Compendium, Geneve, CH (1994).
[19] NIOSH, “Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM): Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons by HPLC”, Method 5506, Issue 3, 4th Ed., pp. 1-9 (1998).
[20] EPA  (2003),  Extraction  Methods  of  Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, http:// www. epa. gov/ paoswer/ hazwaste/test/sw846.htm.
[21] Herbert, “Sample Preparation and HPLC Analysis of PAHs Extracted Soil Samples”, Certified Quality Management, DIN EN ISO 9001, Unexas Application, KNAUER (2003).
[22] Young, Lily Y., Cernighlia, Carl E., “Microbial Transformation and Degradation of Toxic Organic Chemicals”, Wiley-Liss (2003).