Modeling and Simulation of Heat Transfer Phenomenon in Steel Belt Conveyer Sulfur Granulating Process

Document Type: Research Article

Authors

Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, P.O. Box 91775-1111 Mashhad, I.R. IRAN

Abstract

Complex heat transfer phenomena (including unsteady state conduction, convection and solidification processes) occur in steel belt conveyer sulfur granulating method. Numerical simulation of this technique is performed via a comprehensive and multifaceted one dimensional model. Since the air situated between the adjacent sulfur pastilles is essentially stagnant, therefore, the surface temperatures of neighboring pastilles are actually the same during cooling process and the radial heat transfer can be entirely ignored.  Knowing this issue, the axial heat flow is the only remaining mechanism of heat transfer and the one dimensional model would be valid. After solving the partial differential equation of the model, the effects of various operating conditions (such as ambient air temperature, inlet cooling water flow rate and its temperature, initial temperature of the liquid sulfur droplet and steel belt conveyer speed) are studied on the performance of the entire granulation process. According to results, with increasing the cooling water flow rate and steel belt conveyer speed, solidification rate of the liquid sulfur droplet is increased. Furthermore, the solidification process of the sulfur droplet occurs more rapidly when the ambient air temperature, initial liquid sulfur temperature and inlet water temperature are reduced. To the best our knowledge, simulation of steel belt conveyer sulfur granulating process has not been addressed previously.

Keywords

Main Subjects


[1] Gang C., "Analysis of Sulfur Granulating Process", Technical Report, Nanjing Sunup Granulation Equipment Company, (2008).

[2] Goer B.G., "Sulfur Forming and Degassing Process", Technical Report, Goar, Allison &  Associates, Inc, (1983).

[3] Gehrmann,S., The Pastillation Principle, J. Hydrocarbon Engineering, 11(3), p. 117 (2006).

[4] Suh Y., Son G., Numerical Simulation of Droplet Deposition and Self-Alignment on A Microstructured Surface, J. Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A , 57, p. 415 (2010).

[5] Fang H.S., Bao K., Wei J.A., Zhang H., Wu E.H., Zheng L. L., Simulations of Droplet Spreading and Solidification Using an Improved Sph Model, J. Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A, 55, p. 124 (2009).

[6] Cantarel A., Lacoste E., Arvieu C., Mantaux O., Danis M., Numerical Simulation of Segregation Phenomena Coupled With Phase Change and Fluid Flow: Application to Metal Matrix Composites Processing, J. Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A, 55, p. 880 (2009).

[7] Bubnovich V., Quijada E., Reyes A., Computer Simulation Of Atmospheric Freeze Drying of Carrot Slices in A Fluidized Bed, J. Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A, 56, p. 170 (2009)

[8] Pardeshi R., Singh A.K., Dutta P., Modeling of Solidification Process in A Rotary Electromagnetic Stirrer, J. Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A , 55, p. 42 (2009).

[9] Mughal M.P., Fawad H., Mufti R., Numerical Thermal Analysis to Study the Effect of Static Contact Angle on the Cooling Rate of a Molten Metal Droplet, J. Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A , 49, p. 95 (2006).

[10] Jafari A., Seyedein S.H., Haghpanahi M., Modeling of Heat Transfer and Solidification of  Droplet / Substrate in Microcasting SDM Process, J. International Journal of Engineering Science (IUST), 19(5-1), p.187 (2008).

[11] Fritsching U., Bergmann D., Bauckhage K., Metal Solidification During Spray Forming, J. International Journal of Fluid Mechanics Research, 4-6, p. 623 (1997).

[12] Sozbir N., Yigit C., Issa R.J., Shi-Chune Y., Guven H. R., Ozcelebi S., Multiphase Spray Cooling of Steel Plates Near the Leidenfrost Temperature-Experimental Studies and Numerical Modeling, J. Atomization and Sprays, 5, p. 387 (2010).

[13] Loulou T., Bardon J.P., Heat Transfer During the Spreading and Solidification of A Molten Metal Droplet on A Cooled Substrate, J. High Temperature Material Processes (An International Quarterly of High-Technology Plasma Processes), 4(1), p. 69 (2000).

[14] Vincent S., Caltagirone J. P., Arquis, E., Numerical Simulation of Liquid Metal Particles Impacting onto Solid Substrate: Description of Hydrodynamics Processes and Heat Transfers, J. High Temperature Material Processes (An International Quarterly of High-Technology Plasma Processes), 4(1), p. 79 (2000).

[15] Johnson G.J., Sulphur Handling Forming, Storage And Shipping,  Proc. 7th Int. Bottom of the Barrel Technology Conference and Exhibition, Athens, Hydrocarbon World, 4(1), p. 55-60 (2009).

[16] Phinney, R., Wet Granulation Method Generating Sulfur Granules. US Patent 6331193, (2001).

[17] Chalmers W.W., Sulfur Pelletizing, US Patent 4024210, (1977).

[18] Leszczynska H., Gulcz M., Januszewski Z., Godlewski C., Gorczyca Z., Janota N., Method of Granulation of Sulfur, US Patent 4263012, (1981).

[19] Higgins J.T., Sulfur Prilling, US Patent 4389356, (1983).

[20] Hite J.R., Method for Prilling Molten Sulfur, US Patent 3538200, (1970).

[21] Bennett F.W., Process of Prilling Molten Materials, US Patent 4031174, (1975).  

[22] Sandvik, Sulfur Technology Review, J. Hydrocarbon Engineering, 12(4), p.74 (2007).

[23] Lamprecht R., High Performance Granulation. The Versatile and Efficient Rotoform Process, J. CIT Plus, 11(47), p. 47 (2008). 

[24] Selivanov N.V., Yakovlev P.V., Features of Heat Transfer in the Granulation of Sulfur, J. Journal of Engineering Physics and Thermophysics, 77(5), p. 904 (2004).

[25] Yakovlev P.V., Investigation of Heat Exchange in the Water Granulation of Sulfur, J.Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, 41(3-4), p. 185 (2005).

[26] Vetterling W.T., Teukolsky S.A., Press W.H., Flannery B.P., “Numerical Recipes (The Art of Scientific Computing)”, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2nd ed, Chap 19, (1992).

[27] Bird R.B., Stewart W.E., Lightfoot E.N., “Transport Phenomena”, 2nd ed, Chap 9, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New york, (2002).

[28] Treybal R.E., “Mass Transfer Operations”, Chap 3, McGraw Hill, Boston, (1980).