Synthesis of Spongelike Mesoporous Anatase and its Photocatalytic Properties

Document Type: Research Article

Authors

1 J. I. H. Research Laboratories, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, P.O. Box 11365/8486 Tehran, I.R. IRAN

2 Department of Chemistry, Tarbiat Modares University, 14115-175 Tehran, I.R. IRAN

Abstract

Mesoporous TiO2 has been prepared using a nonionic block copolymer (Pluronic P-123) as structure-directing agent with sol-gel method. Characterization of the product was carried out by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC), Nitrogen sorption isotherms, and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. These analyses showed that under controlled synthesis conditions, a wormlike mesostructured TiO2 with high surface area (110 m2g-1) and appropriated band gap (~3 eV) is obtained. Moreover, the pore walls of the nanostructured TiO2 solid are formed by incipient crystallites of anatase, which is a significant achievement regarding its possible photocatalytic applications. The activity of the prepared photocatalyst was evaluated by degradation of Congo Red azo dye. It has excellent photocatalytic efficiencies and more than 76% dye was decolorized in 90 minute.

Keywords

Main Subjects


[1] Jun Y., Kim H., Lee H.J., Hong S., CO Sensing Performance in Micro-Arc Oxidized TiO2 Films for Air Quality Control, Sensors and Actuators B., 120, 69 (2006).
[2] Wang P., Zakeeruddin S., Exnar I., Grätzel M., High Efficiency Dye-Sensitized Nanocrystalline Solar Cells Based on Ionic Liquid Polymer Gel Electrolyte, Chem. Commun., 1, p. 2972 (2002).
[3] Kabra K., Chaudhary R., Sawhney R., Treatment of Hazardous Organic and Inorganic Compounds Through Aqueous-Phase Photocatalysis: A Review, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 43, p. 7683 (2004).
[4] Roy D., Fendler J., Reflection and Absorption Techniques for Optical Characterization of Chemically Assembled nanomaterials, Adv. Mater., 16, p. 479 (2004).
[5] Mahmoodi N.M., Arami M., Yousefi Limaee N., Salman Tabrizi N., Kinetics of Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Degradation of Reactive Dyes in an Immobilized TiO2 Photocatalytic,J. Colloid Interf. Sci., 295, p. 159 (2006).
[6] Alvaro M., Aprillle C., Benitez M., Carbonell E., Garcia H., Photocatalytic Activity of Structured Mesoporous TiO2 Materials, J. Phys. Chem. B., 110, p. 6661 (2006).
[7] Jia X., He W., Yang W., Zhao H., Zhang X., Nanomorphological Anatase TiO2: From Spongy Network to Porous Nanoparticles, Mat. Let., 62, p. 1896 (2008).
[8] Patterson A.L., The Scherrer Formula for X-Ray Particle Size Determination, Phys Rev., 56, p. 978 (1993).
[9] Li X.S., Fryxell G.E., birnbaum J.C., Wang C., Effects of Template and Precursor Chemistry on Structure and Properties of Mesoporous TiO2 Thin Films, Langmuir, 20, p. 9095 (2004).
[10] Grosso  D.,  Soler-Illia  G.J.A.A.,  Crepaldi  E.L., Cegnol C., Sinturel A., Bourgeois A., Brunet-Bruneau A., Amenitsch H., Albouy P.A., Sanchez C., Highly Porous TiO2 Anatase Optical Thin Films with Cubic Mesostructure Stabilized at 700 °C, Chem. Mater., 15, p. 4562 (2003).
[11] Xiao J., Peng T., Li R., Peng Z., Yan C., Preparation Phase Transformation and Phtocatalytic Activities of Cerium-Doped Mesoporous Titania Nanoparticles, J. Solid State Chem., 179, p. 1161 (2006).
[12] Yu J., Zhang L., Cheng B., Su Y., Hydrothermal Preparation and Photocatalytic Activity of Hierarchically Sponge-Like Marco-/Mesoporous Titania, J. Phys. Chem. C 111, p. 10582 (2007).
[13] Wark N., Tschirch J., Bartels O., Bahnemann D., Rathousky J.,Photocatalytic Activity of Hydrophobized Mesoporous Thin Films of TiO2, Micropor. Mesopor. Mater., 84, p. 247 (2005).
[14] Bhattacharyya D., Chaudhuri S., Pal A.K., Bandgap and Optical Transitions in thin Films from Reflectance Measurements, Vacuum, 43, p. 313 (1992).
[15] Alexandridis P., Zhou D., Khan A., Lyotropic Liquid Crystallinity in Amphiphilic Block Copolymers: Temperature Effects on Phase Behavior and Structure for Poly(Ethylene Oxide)-b-Poly(Propylene Oxide)-b-Poly(Ethylene Oxide) Copolymers of Different Composition, Langmuir, 12, p. 2690 (1996).
[16] Blanchard J.,  Ribot  F.,  Sanchez  C.,  Bellot  P.V., Trokiner A., Structural Characterization of Titanium-Oxo-Polymers Synthesized in the Presence of Protons or Complexing Ligands as Inhibitors, J. Non-cryst. Solids, 265, p. 83 (2000).
[17] Brinker  C.J.,  Scherer  G.W., Sol-Gel Science: The Physics and Chemistry of Sol-Gel Processing,
"Sol-Gel Science", p.54, Academic Press, San Diego, (1990).
[18] Yang P.,  Zhao D.,  Margolese  D.I.,  Chmelka  B.F., Stucky G.D.,Block Copolymer Templating Syntheses of Mesoporous Metal Oxides with Large Ordering Lengths and Semicrystalline Framework, Chem. Mater., 11, p. 2813 (1999).
[19] Yang P., Zhao D., Margolese D.I., Chmelka B.F., Stucky G.D., Generalized Syntheses of Large-Pore Mesoporous Metal Oxides with Semicrystalline Frameworks, Nature, 396, p. 152 (1998).