Micro-Model Experimental Study of Fracture Geometrical Effect on Breakthrough Time in Miscible Displacement Process

Document Type: Research Article

Authors

1 Faculty of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9465 Tehran, I.R. IRAN

2 Department of Petroleum Engineering, Abadan Faculty of Petroleum Engineering, Petroleum University of Technology, Abadan I.R. IRAN

Abstract

The miscible displacement process appears to be an increasingly feasible method for the extraction of oil from depleted reservoirs. How‌ever, there is a lack of fundamental understanding of how fracture geometrical characteristics impact the oil recovery efficiency in this type of enhanced oil recovery technique. In this work, a series of experimental tests were conducted whereby the n-Heptane as a solvent displaced n-Decane in the glass micro-models having different fracture geometries. It has been observed that the breakthrough time is decreased with increasing the fractures’ length. In contrast, breakthrough time is increased when increasing the fractures orientation angle related to flow direction. A correlation has been presented for the breakthrough time as a function of fracture length and its orientation. 

Keywords

Main Subjects


[1] Wilson J.L., “Visualization of Flow and Transport at the Pore Level,” Proceedings of the Symposium on Transport and Reactive Processes in Aquifers, Dracos T.H., Stauffer F., Eds., Balkema, Rotterdam, Netherlands, pp. 19-36, 11-15 April (1994).

[2] Mattax C.C., Kyte J.R., Ever See a Water Flood, Oil and Gas J., 59, p. 115 (1961).

[3] Davis J.A., Jones S.C., Displacement Mechanisms of Residual Solutions, J. Pet. Tech., 20, p. 1415 (1968).

[4] McKellar M., Wardlaw N.C., A Method of Making Two Dimensional Glass Micromodels of Pore Systems, J. Can. Pet. Technol., 21, p. 1 (1982).

[5] Wang J., Dong M., Asghari K., Effect of Oil Viscosity on Heavy-Oil/Water Relative Permeability Curves, "SPE/DOE Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery",Tulsa,Oklahoma, 22-26 April(2006).

[6] Bai B., Lid Y., Coste J., Li L., Preformed Particle Gel for Conformance Control: Transport Mechanism through Porous Media, SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering, 10(2), p. 176 (2007).

[7] Sohrabi M., Henderson G.D., Tehrani D.H., Danesh A., Visualization of Oil Recovery by Water Alternating Gas (WAG) Injection Using High Pressure Micromodels - Oil-Wet & Mixed-Wet Systems, SPE 71494, Louisiana, 30 September-3 October (2001).

[8] Sohrabi M., Tehrani D.H., Danesh A., Henderrson G.D., Visualization of Oil Recovery by Water-Alternating-Gas Injection Using High-Pressure Micromodels, SPE J., 9(3), p. 290(2004).

[9] Sohrabi M., Danesh A., Tehrani D.H., Jamiolahmady M., Microscopic Mechanisms of Oil Recovery by Near-Miscible Gas Injection, Transport in Porous Media, 72(3), p. 351 (2008).

[10] Danesh A., Krinis D., Henderson G.D., Peden J.M, Pore Level Visual Investigation of Miscible and Immiscible Displacements, J. Pet. Sci. Eng., 2(2-3), p.167 (1989).

[11] Touboul E., Lenormand R., Zarcone C., Immiscible Displacements in Porous Media: Testing Network Simulators by Micromodel Experiments, SPE 16954, "62nd Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition of SPE",Dallas,TX, 27-30 September (1987).

[12] Mahers E.G., Dawe R.A., Visualisation of Microscopic Displacement Processes Within Porous Media in EOR Capillary Pressure Effects, "3rd European Meeting on Improved Oil Recovery", Rome, 1, pp. 40-58, 16- 18 April (1985).

[13] ChatzisI., Dullien F.A.L., Dynamic Immiscible Displacement Mechanisms in Pore Doublets: Theory versus Experiment, J. Coll. Int. Science, 91(1), p. 199 (1983).

[14] Hornof V., Morrow N.R., Flow Visualization of the Effects of Interfacial Tension on Displacement, SPE Reservoir Engineering, 3(1), p. 251 (1988).

[15] PatersonL., Hornof V., Neale G., Visualization of a Surfactant Flood of an Oil Saturated Porous Medium, SPEJ, 24(3), p. 325 (1984).

[16] Bora R., Chakma A., Maini B.B., Experimental Investigation of Foamy Oil Flow Using a High Pressure Etched Glass Micromodel, "SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition", Denver, Colorado, pp. 91-100, 5-8 October (2003).

[17] Soudmand-asli A., Ayatollahi S.S., Mohabatkar H., Zareie M., Shariatpanahi S.F., The in Situ Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery in Fractured Porous Media, J. Pet. Sci. Eng., 58(1-2), p. 161 (2007).

[18] George D.S., Hayat O., Kovscek A.R., A Microvisual Study of Solution Gas-Drive Mechanisms in Viscous Oils, J. Pet. Sci. Eng., 46(1-2), p. 101 (2005).

[19] Grattoni C.A., Dawe R.A., Gas and Oil Production from Water flood Residual Oil: Effects of Wettability and Oil Spreading Characteristics, J. Pet. Sci. Eng., 39(3-4), p. 297 (2003).

[20] Lago M., Huerta M., Gomes R., Visualization Study During Depletion Experiments of Venezuelan Heavy Oils Using Glass Micromodels, J. Can. Pet. Tech., 41(1), p. 41 (2002).

[21] Danesh A., Peden J.M., Krinis D., HendersonG.D., Pore Level Visual Investigation of Oil Recovery by Solution Gas Driveand Gas Injection, SPE 16956, "62nd Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition of SPE",Dallas,Texas, 27-30 September (1987).

[22] Laroche C., Vizika O., Kalaydjian F., Wettability Het­erogeneities in Gas Injection; Experiments and Modeling, Petroleum Geoscience, 5(1), p. 65 (1999).

[23] Morrow N.R., Lim H.T., Ward J.S., Effect of Crude-Oil­ Induced Wettability Changes on Oil Recovery, SPE Formation Evaluation, 1(1), p. 89 (1986).

[24] Romero-Zeron L., Kantzas A., The Effect of Wettability and Pore Geometry on Foamed-Gel-Blockage Performance, SPE Res. Eval. & Eng., 10(2), p. 150 (2007).

[25] Ghazanfari M.H., Khodabakhsh M., Kharrat R., Rashtchian D., Unsteady State Relative Permeability and Capillary Pressure Estimation of Porous Media, "CMWR - XVI International Conference", Copenhagen, Denmark, 18-22 June (2006).

[26] Ghazanfari M.H., Rashtchian D., Kharrat R., Voussughi S., Capillary Pressure Estimation of Porous Media Using Statis­tical Pore Size Function, Chemical Engineering & Technology, 30(7), p. 862 (2007).

[27] Danesh A., Krinis D., HendersonG.D., Peden J.M., Asphaltene Deposition in Miscible Gas Flooding of Oil Reservoirs, Chem. Eng. Res. Des., 66, p. 339 (1988).

[28] Mahers E.G., Dawe R.A., The Role of Diffusion and Mass Transfer Phenomena in the Mobilization of Oil during Miscible Displacement, "European Symposium on Enhanced Oil Recovery," Paris, 279-288, 8-10 November (1982).

[29] Mahers E.G., Dawe R.A., Quantification of Diffusion inside Porous Media for EOR Processes by Micromodel and Holography, SPE 12679, "SPE/DOE Fourth Symposium on Enhanced Oil Recovery", Tulsa, Oklahoma USA, 16-18 April (1984).

[30] Mackay E.J., Henderson G.D., Tehrani D.H., Danesh A., The Importance of Interfacial Tension on Fluid Distribution During Depressurization, SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering, 1(5), p. 408 (1998).

[31] Bahralolom I.M., Bretz R.E., Orr Jr. F.M., Experimental Investigation of the Interaction of Phase Behavior with Microscopic Heterogeneity in a CO2 Flood, SPE Reservoir Engineering, 3(2), p. 662 (1988).

[32] Ren X., Wu P., Qu Z., Shi C., Studying the Scaling Mechanism of Low-Permeability Reservoirs Using Visual Real-Sand Micromodel, "SPE International Oilfield Scale Symposium", Aberdeen, United Kingdom, 31 May-1 Jun (2006).

[33] CampbellB.T., Orr Jr. F.M., Flow Visualization for CO2/Crude Oil Displacements, SPEJ, 25(5), p. 665 (1985).

[34] Ren W., Bentsen R.G., Cunha L.B., A Study of the Gravity Assisted Tertiary Gas Injection Processes, J. Can. Pet. Tech., 44(2), p. 26 (2005).

[35] Hatiboglu, C.U., Babadagli, T., Pore-Scale Studies of Spontaneous Imbibition into Oil-Saturated Porous media, Phys. Review E, 77, 066311-11, (2008).

[36] Joekare Niasar V., Hassanzadeh S.M., Pyrak-Nolte L.J., Berentsen C., Simulating Drainage and Imbibition Experiments in a High-Porosity Micromodel Using an Unstructured Pore Network Model, Water Resources Research, 45, W02430, 15 PP., (2009), doi:10.1029/2007WR006641.

[37] Kamari E., Shadizadeh S.R., Rashtchian D., Effect of Fracture Geometrics on Breakthrough Time in Immiscible Displacement Process through Strongly Oil WetFractured Porous Media: Experimental Investigation, Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, accepted (2011).