1Department of Food Science and Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Tehran, I.R. IRAN
2Department o Food Science, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Science, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, I.R. IRAN
3Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Tehran, I.R. IRAN
4Marine Living Science Department, Iranian National Center for Oceanography, Tehran, I.R. IRAN
Various scaling methods such as relative viscosity, Peclet and Reynolds scaling were used to find the best scaling law. Scaling and modeling of the ﬂow curves of various model emulsions consist of Tragacanth Gum (TG) (0.5, 1 % wt), Oleic acid (5, 10% v/v) and WPI (2, 4 % wt) were investigated and the best models were selected. As these emulsions are non-Newtonian, they do not obey the usual, simple scaling laws. When the apparent viscosity is reduced to relative viscosity of the medium at zero shear rate, a distinct reduced ﬂow curve is obtained, regardless of TG, oleic acid and WPI concentrations. This will lead to a technique of simplifying complex non-Newtonian ﬂow curves and therefore predicting the rheological ﬂow curves and ﬂuid mechanics when different modiﬁers are added to food emulsions. The flow behavior of all samples was successfully modeled with Cross, power law and Ellis models and power law model was found as the better model to describe the flow behavior of dispersions. Results showed that both G' and G'' increased with TG, oleic acid and WPI concentrations with pronounce effect of TG content.
 McClements D.J., Protein-Stabilized Emulsions. Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science, 9, 305 (2004a).
 McClements D.J., "Food Emulsions: Principles, Practice and Techniques", CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA, (2004b).
 Schramm L.L., "Emulsion, Foams, and Suspensions: Fundamentals and Applications", WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co., London, (2005).
 Bengoechea C., Romero A., Aguilar J.M., Cordobés F., Guerrero A., Temperature and pH as Factors Inﬂuencing Droplet Size Distribution and Linear Viscoelasticity of O/W Emulsions Stabilized by Soy and Gluten Proteins, Food Hydrocolloids, oi:10.1016/j.foodhyd. (2010).
 Kinsella J.E., Milk Proteins: Physical and Functional Properties, CRCCritical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 21, 197 (1984).
 Hunt J.A., Dalgleish D.G., Adsorption of Whey-Protein Isolate and Caseinate in Soya Oil-in-Water Emulsions, Food Hydrocolloids, 8, p. 175 (1994).
 Diftis N.G., Biliaderis C.G., Kiosseglou V.D., Rheological Properties and Stability of Model Salad Dressing Emulsions Prepared with a Dry-Heated Soy Bean Protein Isolate- Dextran Mixture, Food Hydrocolloids, 19, p. 1025 (2005).
 Vega C., Dalgleish D.G., Goff H.D., Effect of Kappa- Carrageenan Addition to Dairy Emulsions Containing Sodium Caseinate and Locust Bean Gum, Food Hydrocolloids, 19, p. 187 (2005).
 Dickinson E., Semenova M.G., Antipova A.S., Pelan E.G., Effect of High-Methoxypectin on Properties of Casein-Stabilized Emulsions, Food Hydrocolloids, 12, p. 425 (1998).
 Dalgleish, D. G. and Hollocou, A. L. Stabilization of Protein-Based Emulsion by Mean of Interacting Polysaccharides, In: "Food Colloid: Proteins, Lipids and Polysaccharide", Dickinson E., Bergenstahl S., (Eds.); Royal Society (of Chemistry: Cambridge, U.K., pp 236- 244, (1997).
 Beaulieu, M., Corredig, M., Turgeon, S. L., Wicker, L., Doublier J.L., The Formation of Heat-Induced Protein Aggregates in Whey Protein/Pectin Mixtures Studied by Size Exclusion Chromatography Coupled with Multi-Angle Laser Light Scattering Detection, Food Hydrocolloids, 19, p. 803 (2005).
 Balaghi, S., Mohammadifar, M. A., Zargaraan A., Physicochemical and Rheological Characterization of Gum Tragacanth Exudates from Six Species of Iranian Astragalus, Food Biophysics, 5, p. 59 (2010).
 Weiping, W., and Branwell, A. Tragacanth, Karaya, in: Phillips, G.O., and Williams, P.A. (Eds.), "Handbook of Hydrocolloids", Wood Head Publishing Ltd., Cambridge, (2000).
 Buffo R.A., Reineccius G.A., Modeling the Rheology of Concentrated Beverage Emulsions, Journal of Food Engineering, 51, p. 267 (2002).
 Buffo R.A., Reineccius G.A., Oehlert G.W., Factors Affecting the Emulsifying and Rheological Properties of Gum Acacia in Beverage Emulsions. Food Hydrocolloids, 15, p. 53 (2001).
 Chanamai R., McClements D.J., Depletion Focculation of Beverage Emulsions by Gum Arabic and Modiﬁed Starch, Journal of Food Science, 66, p. 457 (2001a).
 Chanamai R., McClements D.J., Prediction of eEmulsion Color from Droplet Characteristics: Dilute Monodisperse Oil-in-Water Emulsions, Food Hydrocolloids, 15, p. 83 (2001b).
 Chanamai R., McClements D.J., Impact of Weighting Agents and Sucrose on Gravitational Separation of Beverage Emulsions, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48, p. 5561 (2000).
 Taherian A.R., Fustier P., Ramaswamy H.S., Effect of Added oil and Modiﬁed Starch on Rheological Properties, Droplet Size Distribution, Opacity and Stability of Beverage Cloud Emulsions, Journal of Food Engineering, 77, p. 687 (2006).
 Tan, C.T., In Friberg, S., and Larsson, K. (Eds.), "Beverage Emulsions in Food Emulsions" (3rded.), Marcel Dekker Inc, New York, pp. 491, (1997).
 Tse, K., Reineccius, G. A. Flavor Technology, ACS Symposium Series, 610, p. 172 (1995).
 Samavati V., Razavi S.H., Mousavi S.M., Effect of Sweeteners on Viscosity and Particle Size of Dilute Guar Gum Solutions. Iran. J. Chem. Chem. Eng.,27, p. 23 (2008).
 Mewis J., Vermant J., Rheology of Sterically Stabilized Dispersions and Lattices, Progress in Organic Coatings, 40, p. 111 (2000).
 Tadros T., Application of Rheology for Assessment and Prediction of the Long Term Physical Stability of Emulsions, Advances in Colloid & Interface Science, 109, p. 227 (2004).
 Meza B.E., Verdini R.A., Rubiolo A.C., Viscoelastic Behaviour of Heat-Treated Whey Protein Concentrated Suspensions, Food Hydrocolloids, 23, p. 661 (2009).
 Klinkesorn U., Sophanodora P., Chinachoti P., McClements D.J., Stability and Rheology of Corn Oil-in-Water Emulsions Containing Maltodextrin., Food Research International, 37, p. 851 (2004).
 Roberts G.P., Bames H.A., Carew P., Modelling the Fow Behavior of Very Shear-Thinning Liquids, Chemical Engineering Science, 56, p. 617 (2001).
 Lorenzo G., Zaritzky N., Califano A., Modeling Rheological Properties of Low-in-Fat o/w Emulsions Stabilized with Xanthan/Guar Mixtures, Food Research International, 4, p. 1487 (2008).
 Franco J.M., Berjano M., Guerrero A., Munoz J., and Gallegos, C.Flow Behavior and Stability of Light Mayonnaise Containing a Mixture of Egg Yolk and Sucrose Stearate as Emulsiﬁers, Food Hydrocolloids, 9, p. 111 (1995).
 Quintana J.M., Califano A.N., Zaritzky N.E., Partal P., Effect of Salt on the Rheological Properties of Low-in-Fat o/w Emulsions Stabilized with Polysaccharides, Food Science and Technology International, 8, p. 213 (2002a).
 Quintana J.M., Califano A.N., Zaritzky N. E. Partal P., Franco J.M., Linear and Nonlinear Viscoelastic Behavior of Oil-in-Water Emulsions Stabilized with Polysaccharides, Journal of Texture Studies, 33, 215 (2002b).