Some Physico-Chemical Properties of Edible and Forage Watermelon Seeds

Document Type: Research Article

Authors

1 Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Selcuk, 42079 Konya, TURKEY

2 Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Selcuk, 42079 Konya, TURKEY

3 Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Selcuk University, 42031 Konya, TURKEY

Abstract

The crude oil, crude protein, crude ash, crude fiber, total phenol and antioxidant activity values, peroxide values, specific gravity, the refraxtive index and  acid value of Citrullus lanatus and their oils were determined. Fatty acid composition of seeds belong to both watermelon were determined by Gas Chromotography (GC). These oils are important sources of essential fatty acid, linoleic acid (63.19% to 72.03%). Oleic acid contents of seeds ranged between 17.55% (Forage watermelon kernel) to 24.65% (watermelon kernel). Cd, Cr, Mn contents of  watermelon kernel were found between 0.02 to 0.09 mg/kg, 0.37 to 1.46 mg/kg and 6.08 to 11.31 mg/kg, respectively.  Ca, K, Mg, Na, P and S were found as major elements in seed samples. Total phenol contents of watermelon seeds ranged between 0.13 mg GAE /100 mg to 0.30 mg GAE/100 mg. Antioxidant activity of Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.)  seeds (5.06 and 13.90%) were found higher than those of normal seeds (1.31 and 4.42%). Peroxide values of watermelon oils ranged between 7.6 meqO2/kg to 11.7 meqO2/kg.

Keywords

Main Subjects


[1] Acar R., Yem karpuzu (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb) Matsumura & Nakai var. Citroides (Balley) Mansf.). Yembitkileri C. III. Tarım ve Köyişleri Bakanlığı Tarımsal Üretim ve Gelştirme Genel Müdürlüğü, p784-788, İzmir-Turkey (2009).
[2] AOAC, "Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemist", 13th ed., William Horwitz,WashingtonDC,USA, pp 56-1 32 (1980).
[3] AOAC, "Official Methods of Analysis", 15th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington DC(1990).
[4] AOAC, "Official Method of Analyis", 17 th ed., Association of Oficial Analytical Chemists,USA(2000).
[5] Akintayo E.T., Adebayo E.A., Arogundade L.A., Chemical Composıtion, Physico Chemical and Functional Properties of Akee (B.Sapida ), Pulp and Seed Flours, Food Chem., 77, p. 333 (2002).
[6] Amoo I.A., Moza L., Extraction and Physicochemical Properties of Oils from Bauchinia Racemosa Seeds, Riv. Ital. Sostanze Grasse, 76, p. 399 (1999).
[7] Bisognin D.A., Origin and Evolution of Cultivated Cucurbits Ciecia Rural, 32, p. 715 (2002).
[8] Cheftel J.C., Cheftel H., Introduction a la Biochimie et a la Technologie Des Aliments. Technique et Documentatia, Paris Cedex, 1, p. 243 (1992).
[9] Christian A., Studies of Selected Physicochemical Properties of Fluted Pumpkin (Telfeiria Occidentalis Hook F.) Seed ol and Tropical Almond (Terminalia Catappia L.), Seed Oil. Pak. J. Nutr., 5, p. 306 (2006).
[10] Colquhoun D.M., Humphries J.A., Moores, D., Somerset S.M., Effects of a Macadamia Nut Enriched Diet on Serum Lipids and Lipoproteins Compared to a Low Fat Diet., Food Australia, 48, p. 216 (1996).
[11] Edwards, A.J., Vinyard, B.T., Wiley, E.R., Brown, E.D., Collins, J.K., Perkins-Veazie, P., Baker, R.A., Clevidence, B.A., Consumption of Watermelon Juice Increases Plasma Concentrations, J. Nutr., 133, p. 1043 (2003).
[12] Hışıl Y., "Instrumental Analysis Techniques",EgeUniversityEngineering Faculty Publication  No. 55. Bornova-İzmir. (in Turkish) (1998).
[13] Ikeorgu, J.E.G., Effects of Maize and Cassava on the Performance of /intercropped Egusi Melon (Citrullus lanatus (L) Thunb.) and Okra (Abelmoschus Esculentus (L) Moench.) in Nigeria, Sci.Hortic-Amsterdam, 48, p. 261 (1991).
[14] Jeffrey C., Cucurbitaceae. In:Hanelt,P. (ed.) "Mansfeld’s Orramentals", vol.3. Springer,Berlin,Germany, pp. 1510-1557 (2001).
[15] Lee S.K., Mbwambo Z.H., Chung H.S., Luyengi L., Games E.J.C., Mehta R.G., Evaluation of the Antioxidant Potential of Natural Products, Combinational Chem. High Throughput Screen, 1, p. 35 (1998).
[16] Letawe C., Boone M., Pierrard G.E., Digital Image Analysis of the Effect of Topically Apphed Linleic Acid on Acne Microcomedones, Clin. Exp. Dermat, 23, p. 56 (1998).
[17] Loukou A.L., Gnakri D., Dje Y., Kippre A.V., Malice M., Baudoin J.P., Zoro Bi I.A., Macronutrient Composition of Three Cucurbit Species Cultivated for Seed Consumption in Cate D’lvıire. African J. Biotechnol., 6(5), p. 529 (2007).
[18] Matanyaire C.M., Sustainability of Pearl Millet (Pennisetum Glaucum) Productivity in Northern Namibia: Current Situation and Challenges, S.Afr. J. Sci., 94, p. 157 (1998).
[19] Munisse P., Andersen S.B., Sensen B.D., Christiansen J.L., Diversity of Landraces, Agricultural Practices and Traditional Uses of Watermelon (Citrillus Lanatus) in Mozambique, African Journal of Plant Science, 5(2), p. 75 (2011).
[20] Murkovic M., Hillebrand A., Winkler J., Leitner E., Pfannhauser W., Variability of Fatty Acid Content in Pumpkin Seeds (Cucurbita Pepo L.), Zeitschrift-Fuer- Lebensmittel-Untersushung-und- Forschung, 203, p. 216 (1996).
[21] Ndoro O.F., Madakadze R.M., Kageler S., Mashingaidze A.B., Indigenous Knowledge of the Traditional Vegetable Pumpkin (Cucurbita Maxima/ Moschata) from Zimbabwe, Afr. J. Agr. Res., 2, p. 649 (2007).
[22] Oluba O.M., Ogunlowo Y.R., Ojieh G.C., Adebisi K.E., Physicochemical Properties and Fatty Acid Composition of Citrullus Lanatus (Egusi Melon) Seed Oil., Journal of Biological Sciences, 8(4), p. 814 (2008).
[23] Özcan M., Akgül A., Susam Tohumu Ve Yağının Bazı Bileşim özellikleri, Türk Tarım ve Ormancılık Dergisi, 19, p. 59 (1995).
[24] Özcan M., Some Proximate Characteristics of Fruit and Oil of Walnut (Juglans regia L.) Growing in Turkey, Iranian Journal of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, 28(1), p. 57 (2009).
[25] ParisH.S., Characterization of the Cucurbita Pepo Collection at the Newe Ya’ar Research Center, Israel. Plant Genet. Res. Newsl., 162, p. 41 (2001).
[25] Pitrat M., Chauvet M., Foury,C., Diversity, History and Production of Cultivated Cucurbits, Acta Hort., 492, p. 21 (1999).
[26] Püskülcü H., F İkiz F., "Introduction to Statistic", Bilgehan Press, p333. Bornova. İzmir,Turkey. (in Turkish) (1989).
[27] Robinson R.W., Decker-Walters D.S., "Cucurbits", CAB International, Wallingford,  UK, p126 (1997).
[28] Sanjur O.I., Piperno D.R., Andres T.C., Wessel-Beaver L., Phylogenetic Relationships Among Domesticated and Wild Species of Cucurbita (Cucurbitaceae) Inferred from a Mitochondrial Gene: Implications for Crop Plant Evolution and Areas of Origin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 99, p. 535 (2002).
[29] Setiawan B., Sulaeman A., Giraud B.W., Driskell J.A., Carotenoid Content of Selected Indonesian Fruits,
J. Food Compos. Anal.
, 14, p. 169 (2001).
[30] Skujins S., "Handbook for ICP-AES (Varıan-Vista). A Short Guıde To Vista  Series ICP-AES Operation", Varian Int.AGşZug.Version 1.0. pp 29.Switzerland(1998).
[31] Tlili N., Sakouhi F., Elfalleh W., Triki S., Khaldi A., Fatty Acids, Total Phenols and Protein of Caper, Acacia, Cactus and Carob Seeds, Asiatic J. Biotechnol. Res., 2(04), p. 384 (2011).
[32] Wang J., Liao D., Zhang Y., Studies on the Nutrition and Food Therapy Value of Grapeseed Oil, Acta Nutrimenta Sinica, 18, p. 221 (1996).
[33] Wehner, T.C., Watermelon. In: Prohens,J., Nuez, F. (eds.)VegetablesI., "Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, Chenopodicaceae, and Cucurbitaceae", Springer Science-BusinessMedia,New York, pp. 381-418 (2008).
[34] Yoo K.M., Lee K.W., Park J.B., Lee H.J., Hwang I.K., Variation in Major Antioxidants and Total Antioxidant Activity of Yuzu (Citrus Junos Sieb ex Tanaka) During Maturation and Between Cultivars., J. Agric. Food Chem., 52, p. 5907 (2004).
[35] Ziyada A.K., Elhussien S.A., Physical and Chemical Characterisatics of Citrullus Lanatus var. Colocynthoide Seed Oil, J. Physical Sci., 19(2), p. 69 (2008).