Removal of Zinc from Wastewater through the Reduction Potential Determination and Electrodeposition Using Adsorption-Desorption Solutions

Document Type : Research Article

Authors

1 Department of Chemical Engineering, Lee Kong Chian Faculty of Engineering and Science, University Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR), MALAYSIA

2 Department of Environment, Faculty of Environment and Energy, Al-Karkh University of Science, IRAQ

3 Centre for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Utilization, School of Science and Technology, Sunway University, MALAYSIA

4 Department of Engineering, Lancaster University, Lancaster, UNITED KINGDOM

10.30492/ijcce.2020.107851.3586

Abstract

The rubber product manufacturing industry generates large volumes of wastewater containing on average 10 ppm of zinc. Presently, zinc is removed via a chemical precipitation process generating hazardous precipitate that requires secure disposal. This study evaluated the removal of zinc through adsorption on Palm Shell Activated Carbon (PSAC) and subsequent desorption in hydrochloric, nitric (0.1 and 0.2 M), and citric (0.2 and 0.5 M) acids to produce solutions for the electrodeposition of zinc to achieve the permissible discharge level of 2 ppm.  The highest desorption efficiency was achieved using HCl. Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) was applied to determine the reduction potential of zinc in desorption solutions. The presence of KCL and a buffer solution improved the electrodeposition of zinc. The chloride-based solution showed the best electroreduction behavior of zinc with a well-defined reduction peak as compared to the nitrate and citrate-based solutions, with a wider reduction peak and no peak, respectively. The chloride-based solution, selected for theelectrodeposition experiments, showed 64 % reduction in zinc concentration within 10 min. The prolonged to 30 min electrodeposition resulted in only 7 % of further increment. Overall, the obtained results confirm the feasibility of zinc removal through the electrodeposition from the adsorption-desorption solution, which provides an effective alternative to the currently industrially used chemical precipitation method.

Keywords

Main Subjects


[1] International Trade Centre. Natural Rubber Exports by Country, (2019).
[2] Heideman G., Datta R.N., Noordermeer J.W.M., Van Baarle B., Influence of Zinc Oxide During Different Stages 9f Sulfur Vulcanization. Elucidated by Model Compound Studies, J. Appl. Polymer. Sci., 95: 1388-1404 (2005).
[4]    Ahmad A., Buang A., Bhat A.H., Renewable and Sustainable Bioenergy Production from Microalgal Co-Cultivation with Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME): A Review. Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev, 65(C):,  214-234 (2016).
[5] Hesas R.H., Daud W.M.A.W., Sahu J.N., Niyya, A.A., The Effects of A Microwave    Heating Method on the Production of Activated Carbon from Agricultural Waste: A Review,      J. Anal. Appl. Pyrol, 100: 1-11 (2013). 
[6] Galla U., Ju Ttner K., Schmieder H., Electrochemical Approaches to Environmental Problems in the Process Industry, Electrochim. Acta, 45: 2575-2594 (2000).
[7] Mendoza-Huízar L.H., Rios-Reyes C.H., Gómez-Villegas M.G., Zinc Electrodeposition from Chloride Aolutions onto Glassy Carbon Electrode, J. Mex. Chem. Soc. 53: 243-247 (2010).
[8] Fosso-Kankeu E., Mulaba-Bafubiandi A.F., Mamba B.B., Marjanovic L., Barnard T.G.,  A Comprehensive Study of Physical and Physiological Parameters that Affect Biosorption of Metal Pollutants from Aqueous Solutions, Phys. Chem. Earth, 35: 672-678 (2010).
[9] Sanchooli Moghaddam, M., Rahdar S., Taghavi M., Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Solutions Using Saxaul Tree Ash, Iran. J. Chem. Chem. Eng. (IJCCE), 35(3): 45-52 (2016).
[10] Ishaq M., Javed F., Amad I., Ullah H., Hadi F., Sultan S., Adsorption of Crystal Violet Dye from Aqueous Solutions onto Low-Cost Untreated and Naoh Treated Almond Shell. Iran. J. Chem. Chem. Eng. (IJCCE), 35(2): 97-106 (2016).
[11] Kamranifar M., Naghizadeh A., Montmorillonite Nanoparticles in Removal of Textile Dyes    from Aqueous Solutions: Study of Kinetics and Thermodynamics, Iran. J. Chem. Chem.    Eng. (IJCCE), 36(6): 1-9 (2017).
[12] Gustafsson J.P., Visual MINTEQ, Version 3.1.
[13] Deepatana A., Valix M., Adsorption of Metals from Metal-Organic Complexes Derived from Bioleaching of Nickel Laterite Ores, ECI Digital Archives, 21: 1-18 (2004).
[15] Ahmed N.A., Eyraudb M., Hammachea H., Vacandiob F., Samc S., Gabouzec N., Knauthb P., Pelzerb K., Djeniziand T., New Insight into the Mechanism of Cathodic Electrodeposition of Zinc Oxide Thin Films onto Vitreous Carbon, Electrochim. Acta, 94: 238-250 (2013).
[16] Gabe D.R., Principles of Metal Surface Treatment and Protection, Pergamon Press, London, (1978).
[17] Abou-Krisha M.M., Effect of Ph and Current Density on the Electrodeposition of Zn–Ni  Fe Alloys from a Sulfate Bath, J. Coat. Technol. Res., 9: 775-783 (2012).
[18] Barbalace L., Periodic Table of Elements. [Accessed 21 December 2015]. 
[19] Sharma S.K., Green Corrosion Chemistry and Engineering: Opportunities and Challenges, JohnWiley & Sons, Inc., New York, (2011).
[22] Gurevich Y.U., Donchenko M.I., Motronyuk T.I., Sokirko A.V., Kharkats Y.I., Influenceof a Secondary Process on Copper Deposition Rate in Nitrate  Baths, Soviet Electrochem, 25: 698-702 (1989).
[23] Yoshida T., Komatsu D., Shimokawa N., Minoura H., Mechanism of Cathodic Electrodeposition of Zinc Oxide Thin Films from Aqueous Zinc Nitrate Baths, Thin Solid Films, 451(1): 166-169 (2004).
[24] Ishizaki T., Ohtomo T., Sakamoto Y., Fuwa A., Effect of Ph on The Electrodeposition of Znte Film from a Citric Acid Solution,  Mater. T. JIM., 45: 277-280 (2004).
[25] Kazimierczak H., Ozga P., Jałowiec A., Kowalik R., Tin–Zinc Alloy Electrodeposition from Aqueous Citrate Baths, Surf. Coat. Tech., 240: 311-     (2014).
[26] Sunada S., Majima K., Matsuda T., Dissolution Behaviour of SUS304 Stainless Steel Due to General Corrosion In H2SO4-NaCl Aqueous Solution, J. Jpn. Soc. Powder. Powder. Metall. 52: 530-536 (2005).
[27] Gladyshev S.V., Abdulvaliev R.A., Beisembekova K.O., Sarsenbay G., Study of Gallium Plating of Metal Electrodes, J. Mater. Sci. Chem. Engin., 1: 39-42 (2013).