Pyrolysis–Gas Chromatography of Lakhra Coal: Effect of Temperature and Inorganic Matter on the Product Distribution

Document Type: Research Article

Authors

1 National Centre of Excellence in Physical Chemistry, University of Peshawar, Peshawar-25120, PAKISTAN

2 Department of Chemistry, The University of Lahore, Lahore, PAKISTAN

3 Jhang-Campus, University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Lahore, PAKISTAN

4 International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, HEJ Research Institute of Chemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270, Pakistan

Abstract

The objective of this article was to study the effect of pyrolysis temperature and mineral matter on the distribution of the products of C1-C6 hydrocarbons. Pakistani lignite named Lakhra 6B was used to study the effect of inorganic substances on the reactivity of coal. The experiments were performed using pyrolysis gas chromatography to investigate the activity of virgin coal, HCl acid-washed coal, and acid-washed coal with (Ca(C2H3O2)2, Mg(C2H3O2)2, NaC2H3O2, KC2H3O2), added respectively. The products obtained were monitored by a gas chromatograph. The main products identified were methane, ethane, ethylene, propane, 1-butene, n-butane, 1-pentene, n-pentane, and benzene. The results showed that coal conversion to methane increased with an increase in temperature and the amount of this hydrocarbon was high among all the hydrocarbons formed. It was observed that the addition of metal ions affected the yields of the products selectively. The yield of benzene was observed to be high in the case of calcium and magnesium form coals. The other cations form coals produced a smaller quantity of benzene in the temperature range studied. From the results, it can be concluded that metal ions played a selective role in controlling the yield of C1-C6 hydrocarbons products from coal pyrolysis in general and benzene yield in particular.

Keywords

Main Subjects


[1] Khan Z., “Pakistan Coal Power Generation Potential”, Private Power and Infrastructure Board Pakistan,
1–64 (2004).

[3] Wang W., Dong C., Dong W., Yang C., Ju T., Huang L., Zongming R., The Design and Implementation of Risk Assessment Model for Hazard Installations Based on AHP–FCE Method: A Case study of Nansi Lake Basin, Ecol. Inform, 36: 162-171 (2015).

[4] Xia X.H., Hu Y., Alsaedi A., Hayat T., Wu X.D., Chen GQ., Structure Decomposition Analysis for Energy-related GHG Emission in Beijing: Urban Metabolism and Hierarchical Structure, Ecol. Inform, 26:60-69 (2015).

[5] Yang Q., Guo S., Yuan WH., Shen Q., Chen YQ., Wang XH., WU TH., Chen Z-M., Alsaedi A., Hayat T., Energy-Dominated Carbon Metabolism: A Case Study of Hubei Province, China, Ecol. Inform, 26: 85-92 (2015).

[6] Zhang B., Chen Z.M., Qiao H., Chen B., Hayat T., Alsaedi A., China's Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Inventory and Input–Output Analysis, Ecol. Inform., 26:101-110(2015).

[7] Ellis N., Masnadi MS., Roberts DG., Kochanek MA., Ilyushechkin AY., Mineral Matter Interactions During co-pyrolysis of Coal and Biomass and Their Impact on Intrinsic Char co-gasification Reactivity, Chem. Eng. J., 279:402-408 (2015).

[8] Wei X., Zhang G., Cai Y., Li L., Li H., The Volatilization of Trace Elements During Oxidative Pyrolysis of a Coal from an Endemic Arsenosis Area in Southwest Guizhou, China, J. Anal. Appl. Pyrol., 98:184-193(2012).

[9] Fernandez-Turiel J-L., Georgakopoulos A., Gimeno D., Papastergios G., Kolovos N., Ash Deposition in a Pulverized Coal-Fired Power Plant After High-Calcium Lignite Combustion, Energy. Fuel, 18:1512-1518(2004).

[10] Zhu W., Song W., Lin W., Catalytic Gasification of Char from co-pyrolysis of Coal and Biomass, Fuel Proces. Technol., 89: 890-896 (2008).

[11] Sadhukhan A.K., Gupta P., Goyal T., Saha RK., Modelling of Pyrolysis of Coal–Biomass Blends Using Thermogravimetric Analysis, Bioresource Technol., 99: 8022-8026 (2008).

[12] Amin M.N., Li Y., Razzaq R., Lu X., Li C., Zhang S., Pyrolysis of low Rank Coal by Nickel Based Zeolite Catalysts in the Two-Staged Bed Reactor, J. Anal. Appl. Pyrol.,118: 54-62 (2016).

[13] Bičáková O., Straka P., Co-pyrolysis of Waste Tire/Coal mixtures for Smokeless Fuel, Maltenes and Hydrogen-Rich Gas Production, Energy. Convers. Manage.,116:203-213(2016).

[14] Chen Z., Shi Y., Lai D., Gao S., Shi Z., Tian Y., Xu G., Coal Rapid Pyrolysis in a Transport Bed under Steam-Containing Syngas Atmosphere Relevant to the Integrated Fluidized Bed Gasification, Fuel, 176:200-208(2016).

[16] Jia X., Wang Q., Cen K., Cheng L., Sulfur Transformation During the Pyrolysis of Coal Mixed with Coal Ash in a Fixed Bed Reactor, Fuel., 177: 260-267(2016).

[17] Luo K., Zhang C., Zhu S., Bai Y., Li F., Tar Formation During Coal Pyrolysis under N2 and CO2 Atmospheres at Elevated Pressures, J. Anal. Appl. Pyrol., 118: 130-135 (2016).

[18] Montiano M.G., Díaz-Faes E., Barriocanal C., Kinetics of co-Pyrolysis of Sawdust, Coal and Tar, Bioresource Technol.,205:222-229(2016).

[19] Mushtaq F., Mat R., Ani F.N., Fuel Production from Microwave Assisted Pyrolysis of Coal with Carbon Surfaces, Energ. Conver. Manage., 110: 142-153 (2016).

[21] Qu Y., Chu M., Shen G-d., Yuan Y., Zhang Y., Inhibitory Effect of Coal Direct Liquefaction Residue on Lignite Pulverization During co-Pyrolysis, Fuel Proces. Technol.,147: 57–63 (2016).

[22] Wang X., Guo H., Liu F., Hu R., Wang M., Effects of CO2 on Sulfur Removal and Its Release Behavior During Coal Pyrolysis, Fuel, 165: 484-489 (2016).

[24] Zellagui S., Schönnenbeck C., Zouaoui-Mahzoul N., Leyssens G., Authier O., Thunin E., Porcheron L. , Brilhac J-F., Pyrolysis of Coal and Woody Biomass under N2 and CO2 Atmospheres Using a Drop Tube Furnace - Experimental Study and Kinetic Modeling, Fuel Proces. Technol., 148: 99-109 (2016).

[25] Zhong M., Gao S., Zhou Q., Yue J., Ma F., Xu G., Characterization of Char from High Temperature Fluidized Bed Coal Pyrolysis in Complex Atmospheres, Particuology, 25: 59-67 (2016).

[26] Pervaiz M., Butt K.M., Raza M.A., Rasheed A., Ahmad S., Adnan A., Iqbal M., Extraction and Applications of Aluminum Hydroxide from Bauxite for Commercial Consumption, Chem. Int., 1: 99-102 (2015).

[27] Liu Q., Hu H, Zhou Q., Zhu S., Chen G., Effect of Inorganic Matter on Reactivity and Kinetics of coal Pyrolysis, Reprints of Symposia-American Chemical Society, Division of Fuel Chemistry, 48: 368-369 (2003).

[31] Awan I.A., Nisar J., Yamin A., Mahmood T., Pyrolysis of Metal Ions Exchanged Coal, J. Chem. Soc. Pak., 25: 88-92 (2003).

[32] Nisar J., Awan I.A., Ahmad T., Naz G., Analysis of Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons Resulting from Pakistani Coals by Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography, J. Chem. Soc. Pak.,2 9: 247-250 (2007).

[33] Ahmad T., Awan I.A., Nisar J., Ahmad I., Influence of Inherent Minerals and Pyrolysis Temperature on the Yield of Pyrolysates of Some Pakistani Coals, Energ. Convers. Manage., 50: 1163-1171 (2009).

[34] Giam C.S., Goodwin T.E., Giam P.Y., Rion K.F., Smith S.G., Characterization of Lignites by Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography, Anal. Chem., 49: 1540–1543(1977).

[35] van Heek K.H., Hodek W., Structure and Pyrolysis Behaviour of Different Coals and Relevant Model Substances, Fuel, 73: 886-896 (1994).

[36] Xu Y., Zhang Y., Wang Y., Zhang G., Chen L., Gas Evolution Characteristics of Lignite During Low-Temperature Pyrolysis, J. Anal. Appl. Pyrol., 104: 625-631 (2013).

[37] Zhang Y., Liang P., Jiao T., Wu J., Zhang H., Effect of Foreign Minerals on Sulfur Transformation in the Step Conversion of Coal Pyrolysis and Combustion, J. Anal. Appl. Pyrol., 127: 240-245 (2017).

[38] Kou J-W., Bai Z-Q., Bai J., Guo Z-X., Li W., Effects of Mineral Matter and Temperatures on Conversion of Carboxylic Acids and Their Derivatives During Pyrolysis of Brown Coals, Fuel Proces. Technol., 152: 46 -55 (2016).