Synthesis of Sodium Alginate-Derived Carbon Aerogel for Adsorptive Removal of Methylene Blue

Document Type : Research Article

Authors

1 Department of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Materials and Energy Research Center, Karaj, I.R. IRAN

2 Department of Energy, Materials and Energy Research Center, Karaj, I.R. IRAN

Abstract

In this study, carbon aerogel was prepared from sodium alginate via the sol-gel technique. The morphological study clearly revealed that the synthesized aerogel possessed a highly porous structure with a specific surface area of 470 m2/g. The applicability of the aerogel as an adsorbent was examined in methylene blue removal. Adsorption isotherms, kinetics, and thermodynamic studies of Removal of MB from aqueous solutions were conducted in a batch system. The effect of pH and adsorbent dosage on the adsorption of MB was investigated. The equilibrium data were best fitted to the Langmuir model with a maximum adsorption capacity of 70.42 mg/g. The adsorption kinetics of MB followed the pseudo-first-order models. Thermodynamic analysis of the results indicated that adsorption is a physical process and is in agreement with data obtained from the Dubinin−Radushkevich isotherm model. The removal of the MB process was spontaneous and endothermic.

Keywords

Main Subjects


[1] Zhao H., Qiu F., Yan J., Wang J., Li X., Yang D., Preparation of Economical and Environmentally Friendly Graphene/Palygorskite/Tio2 Composites and its Application for The Removal of Methylene Blue, Applied Clay Science, 121: 137-145 (2016).
[2] Wong K.T., Eu N.C.,  Ibrahim S., Kim H., Yoon Y., Jang M., Recyclable Magnetite-Loaded Palm Shell-Waste Based Activated Carbon for the Effective Removal of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solution, Journal of Cleaner Production, 115: 337-342 (2016).
[3] Jamal R., Zhang L., Wang M., Zhao Q., Abdiryim T., Synthesis of Poly (3, 4-propylenedioxythiophene)/ Mno2 Composites and Their Applications In The Adsorptive Removal of Methylene Blue, Progress In Natural Science: Materials International, 26: 32-40 (2016).
[5] Arami M., Limaee N.Y., Mahmoodi N.M., Tabrizi N.S., Removal of Dyes From Colored Textile Wastewater by Orange Peel Adsorbent: Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies, Journal of Colloid And Interface Science, 288: 371-376 (2005).
[6] Xiao X., Zhang F., Feng Z., Deng S., Wang Y., Adsorptive Removal and Kinetics of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solution Using NiO/MCM-41 Composite, Physica E: Low-Dimensional Systems And Nanostructures, 65: 4-12 (2015).
[7] Tan I., Ahmad A.L., Hameed B., Adsorption of Basic Dye on High-Surface-Area Activated Carbon Prepared from Coconut Husk: Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 154: 337-346 (2008).
[8] Baddouh A.,  Rguiti , El Ibrahimi B., Hussain S., Errami M., Tkach V., Bazzi L., Hilali M.,  Anodic Oxidation of Methylene Blue Dye from Aqueous Solution Using SnO2 Electrod, Iranian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (IJCCE), 38(5): 175-184 (2019).
[9] Baddouha A., Amaterza E., El Ibrahimi B., Rguitti M.M., Errami M., Tkach V., Bazzi L.,Enhanced Electrochemical Degradation of a Basic Dye with Ti/Ru0.3Ti0.7O2 Anode Using Flow-Cell, Desalination and Water Treatment 139: 352–359 (2019).
[10] Baddouha A., Bessegato G., Rguitti M.M., El Ibrahimi B., Bazzi L.,Hilali M., Valnice M., Zanoni  B., Electrochemical Decolorization of Rhodamine B Dye: Influence of Anode Material, Chloride Concentration and Current Density, Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 6 (2) 2041-2047(2018)
[11] Jawad A.H., Shazwani N., Mubarak A., Azlan M., Ishak M.,  Khudzir I., Nawawi W.I., Kinetics of Photocatalytic Decolourization of Cationic Dye Using Porous TiO2 Film , Journal of Taibah University For Science 10 352–362 (2016).
[12] Mohammad A.A., Alinejad A., Kamarehie B., Javan S., Ghaderpoury A., Ahmadpour M , Ghaderpoori M., Metal-Organic Framework Uio-66 for Adsorption of Methylene Blue Dye from Aqueous Solutions
International Journal of Environmental Science And Technology, 14(9): 1959–1968 (2017).
[13] Jawad A.H., Hanani Mamat N.F., Abdullah M.F., Ismail Kh., Adsorption of Methylene Blue onto Acid-Treated Mango Peels: Kinetic, Equilibrium and Thermodynamic Study, Desalination and Water Treatment 59: 210–219 (2017).
[14] Jawad A.H., Rashid R.A., Mahmuod R.M.A., Mohd Ishak M.A., Kasim N.N., Ismail Kh., Adsorption of Methylene Blue onto Coconut (Cocos Nucifera) Leaf: Optimization, Isotherm and Kinetic Studies, Desalination and Water Treatment 57: 8839–8853 (2016).
[15] Jaafari J., Ghanbari Ghozikali M., Azari A., Delkhosh M.B., Javid A.B., Mohammadi A.A., Agarwal Sh., Gupta V.K., Sillanpääi M., Tkachevk A.G., Burakov A.E., Adsorption of P-Cresol on Al2 O3 Coated Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Response Surface Methodology and Isotherm Study, Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 57: 396–404 (2018) .
[16] Mohammadi A.A., Zarei A., Alidadi H., Afsharni M., Shams M.,Two-Dimensional Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework-8 for Efficient Removal of Phosphate From Water, Process Modeling, Optimization, Kinetic, and Isotherm Studies, Desalination and Water Treatment, 129: 244–254 (2018).
[17] Jawad A.H., Rashid R.A., Ismail Kh., Sabar S., High Surface Area Mesoporous Activated Carbon Developed from Coconut Leaf by Chemical Activation with H3PO4 for Adsorption of Methylene Blue, Desalination And Water Treatment 74: 326–335 (2017).
[18] Rodriguez A., Ovejero G., Sotelo J., Mestanza M., Garcia J., Adsorption of Dyes on Carbon Nanomaterials from Aqueous Solutions, Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A, 45: 1642-1653 (2010).
[19] Tabrizi N., Yavari M., Methylene Blue Removal by Carbon Nanotube-Based Aerogels, Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 94: 516-523 (2015).
[20] Hassan A.F., Abdel Mohsen A.M., Fouda M.G., Comparative Study of Calcium Alginate, Activated Carbon, and their Composite Beads on Methylene Blue Adsorption, Carbohydrate Polymers 102 192–198 (2014)
[21] White R.J., Budarin V., Luque R., Clark J.H., Macquarrie D.J., Tuneable Porous Carbonaceous Materials from Renewable Resources, Chemical Society Reviews, 38: 3401-3418 (2009).
[22] Daemi H., Barikani M., Barmar M., Variations in Calcium and Alginate Ions Concentration in Relation to the Properties of Calcium Alginate Nanoparticles, Science and Technology, 26: 25-32(2013).
[23] Liu Y., Nguyen L.D.,Truong-Huu T., Liu Y., Romero T., Janowska I., Begin D., Pham-Huu C., Macroscopic Shaping of Carbon Nanotubes with High Specific Surface Area and Full Accessibility, Materials Letters, 79 128-131(2012).
[24] Selena V., Gülerb Ö., Özera D., Evinb E.,Synthesized Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as a Potential Adsorbent for the Removal of Methylene Blue Dye: Kinetics, Isotherms, and Thermodynamics, Desalination and Water Treatment, 1–13 (2015).
[25] Cai W., Yu J., Cheng B., Su B.L., Jaroniec M., Synthesis of Boehmite Hollow Core/Shell and Hollow Microspheres via Sodium Tartrate-Mediated Phase Transformation and Their Enhanced Adsorption Performance in Water Treatment, The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 113: 14739-14746 (2009).
[27] Wang S., Ng C.W., Wang W., Li Q., Hao Z., Synergistic and Competitive Adsorption of Organic Dyes on Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes, Chemical Engineering Journal, 197: 34-40 (2012).
[28] Vargas A.M., Cazetta A.L., Kunita M.H., Silva T.L., Almeida V.C., Adsorption of Methylene Blue on Activated Carbon Produced From Flamboyant Pods (Delonix Regia): Study of Adsorption Isotherms and Kinetic Models, Chemical Engineering Journal, 168: 722-730 (2011).
[29] Hameed B.H., Din A.T., Ahmad A.L., Adsorption of Methylene Blue onto Bamboo-Based Activated Carbon: Kinetics And Equilibrium Studies, J. Hazard Mater., 141: 819-825 (2007).
[30] Li G., Zhu W., Zhang C., Zhang S., Liu L., Zhu L., Zhao W., Effect of a Magnetic Field on the Adsorptive Removal of Methylene Blue onto Wheat Straw Biochar, Bioresource Technology, 206: 16-22 (2016).
[31] Langmuir I., The Constitution and Fundamental Properties of Solids and Liquids, Journal of the Franklin Institute, 183: 102-105 (1917).
[32]Freundlich H., Over the Adsorption in Solution, J. Phys. Chem, 57 E470 (1906).
[33] Zamani S., Tabrizi N.S., Removal of Methylene Blue from Water by Graphene Oxide Aerogel: Thermodynamic, Kinetic, and Equilibrium Modeling, Research on Chemical Intermediates, 41: 7945-7963 (2015).
[34] Parker H.L., Budarin V.L., Clark J.H., Hunt A.J., Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, 1 1311−1318 (2013),.
[35] Chakrabarti S., Dutta B.K., On the Adsorption and Diffusion of Methylene Blue in Glass Fibers, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 286: 807-811 (2005).
[36] Kumar K.V., Ramamurthi V., Sivanesan S., Modeling the Mechanism Involved During the Sorption of Methylene Blue onto Fly Ash, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 284: 14-21 (2005).
[37] Gürses A., Karaca S., Doğar Ç., Bayrak R., Açıkyıldız M., Yalçın M., Determination of Adsorptive Properties of Clay/Water System: Methylene Blue Sorption, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 269 310-314 (2004).
[38] Ayad M.M., El-Nasr A.A., Adsorption of Cationic Dye (Methylene Blue) From Water Using Polyaniline Nanotubes Base, The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 114: 14377-14383 (2010).
[40] Annadurai G., Juang R.S., Lee D.J., Use of Cellulose-Based Wastes for Adsorption of Dyes From Aqueous Solutions, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 92: 263-274 (2002).
[41] Vadivelan V., Kumar K.V., Equilibrium, Kinetics, Mechanism, and Process Design for the Sorption of Methylene Blue onto Rice Husk, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 286: 90-100 (2005).
[42] Ferrero F., Dye Removal by Low Cost Adsorbents: Hazelnut Shells in Comparison with Wood Sawdust, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 142: 144-152 (2007).
[43] Uddin M.T., Islam M.A., Mahmud S., Rukanuzzaman M., Adsorptive Removal of Methylene Blue by Tea Waste, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 164: 53-60 (2009).
[44 ] Yao Y.J., Xu F.F., Chen M., Xu Z.X., Zhu Z.W., Adsorption Behavior of Methylene Blue on Carbon Nanotubes, Bioresour. Technol. 101: 3040–3046 (2010).
[45] Wang P.F., Cao M.H., Wang C., Ao Y.H., Hou J., Qian J., Kinetics And Thermodynamics of Adsorption of Methylene Blue by a Magnetic Graphene-Carbon Nanotube Composite, Appl. Surf. Sci. 290: 116–124 (2014).
[46] Zou W.H., Li K., Bai H.J., Shi X.L., Han R.P., Enhanced Cationic Dyes Removal from Aqueous Solution by Oxalic Acid Modified Rice Husk, J. Chem. Eng. Data 56:1882–1891(2011).
[47] Everett D., Thermodynamics of Adsorption from Solution. Part 2.—Imperfect Systems, Transactions of the Faraday Society, 61: 2478-2495 (1965).
[48] Ganesan P., Kamaraj R., Vasudevan S., Application of Isotherm, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Models
for the Adsorption of Nitrate Ions on Graphene from Aqueous Solution,
Journal of the Taiwan Institute
of Chemical Engineers
, 44: 808-814 (2013).
[49] Srivastava V.C., Swamy M.M., Mall I.D., Prasad B., Mishra I.M.,  Adsorptive Removal of Phenol by Bagasse Fly Ash and Activated Carbon: Equilibrium, Kinetics and Thermodynamics, Colloids Surface, A  272 89−104 (2006).