Spectrophotometric Determination of Copper and Nickel in Marine Brown Algae after Preconcentration with Surfactant Assisted Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction

Document Type: Research Article


Department of Marine Chemistry, Faculty of Marine Science, Chabahar Maritime University, Chabahar, I.R. IRAN


A simple, fast and effective pre-concentration method for the determination of Cu (copper) and Ni (nickel) was developed using a Surfactant Assisted Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction (SA-DLLME) coupled by UV-Vis spectrophotometry in marine brown algae. The complexing agent was 1- (2- pyridylazo) – 2 - naphthol (PAN).The effects of various experimental parameters in the extraction step including type and volume of extraction solvent, type and amount of surfactant, ionic strength, extraction time, pH, amount of ligand, and centrifugation time and rate were investigated. Under optimal experimental conditions, good linearity was observed in the range of 0.1-100.0 µg/Lfor analytes by limits of detection of 0.031 and 0.033 µg/Lfor Ni and Cu, respectively. The proposed procedure was used for the analysis of Ni and Cu in marine brown algae. Good recoveries for spiked samples in the range of 100-118 % were obtained. Using this technique, metals content in algae from Chabahar Bay (Southeast Iran) were detected in the range of 12.80- 39.46 µg/L


Main Subjects

[1] Rainbow P.S., Trace Metal Bioaccumulation: Models, Metabolic Availability and Toxicity, Environ. Inter., 33: 576-582 (2007).

 [5] Hu B., Li G., Li J., Bi J., Zhao J., Bu R., Spatial Distribution and Ecotoxicological Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Surface Sediments of the Southern Bohai Bay, China, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 20: 4099-4110 (2013).

[6] Hu B., Li J., Zhao J., Yang J., Bai F., Dou Y., Heavy Metal in Surface Sediments of the Liaodong Bay, Bohai Sea: Distribution, Contamination and Sources, Environ. Monit. Assess., 185: 5071-5083 (2013).

[8] Arvand M., Bozorgzadeh E., Shariati S., Zanjanchi M.A., Ionic Liquid-Based Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction for the Determination of Formaldehyde in Wastewaters and Detergents, Environ. Monit. Assess., 184: 7597-7605 (2012).

[10] Al- Othman Z.A., Yilmaz E., Sumayli H.M.T., Soylak M., Evaluation of Trace Metals in Tea Samples
from Jeddah and Jazan, Saudi Arabia by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
, Environ. Contam. Tox., 89: 1216-1219 (2012).

[11] Yang J.I., Yeh D.B., Kuo J.M., Pan B.S., Lee G.C., Liu Y.H., Lai Y.J., Detection of Copper Ions in Liquid Foods and Beverages Based on an Enzymatic Method, J. Food Drug Anal., 20: 83-87 (2012).

[12] Lozak A., Soltyk K., Ostapczuk P., Fijalek Z., Determination of Selected Trace Elements in Herbs and their Infusions, Sci. Total Environ., 289: 33-40 (2002).

[13] Ning P.B., Gong C.M., Zhang Y.M., Gue K.K., Bai J., Lead, Cadmium, Arsenic, Mercury and Copper Levels in Chinese Yunnan Puer Tea, Food Addit. Contam. B, 4: 28-33 (2011).

[14] Ichinoki S., Hongo N., Yamazaki M., Simultaneous Determination of Heavy Metals in Chlorella and
Tea Leaves by High Performance Liquid Chromatography
, J. Agric. Food chem., 35: 448-451 (1987).

[20] Nassiri M., Kaykhaii M., Hashemi S.H., Sepahi M., Spectrophotometric Determination of Formaldehyde in Seawater Samples after in-situ Derivatization and Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction, Iran. J. Chem. Chem. Eng. (IJCCE), 37: 89-98 (2018).  

[26] Alizadeh K., Nemati H., Zohrevand S., Hashemi P., Kakanejadifard A., Shamsipur M., Ganjali M.R., Faridbod F., Selective Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction and Preconcentration of Ni(II)
into a Micro Droplet Followed by ETAAS Determination Using a Yellow Schiff's Base Bisazanyl Derivative
, Mater. Sci. Eng., 33: 916-922 (2013).

[28] Arain S.A., Kazi T.G., Afridi H.I., Arain M.S., Panhwar A.H., Khan N., Baig J.A., Shah F., A New Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction Using Ionic Liquid Based Microemulsion Coupled with Cloud Point Extraction for Determination of Copper in Serum and Water Samples, Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., 126: 186-192 (2016)

[30] Rezaee M., Assadi Y., Hosseini M.M., Aghaee E., Ahmadi F., Berijani S., Determination of Organic Compounds in Water Using Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction, J. Chromatogr. A, 1116: 1-9 (2006).

[31] Baliza P.X., Teixeira L.S.G., Lemos V.A., A Procedure for Determination of Cobalt in Water Samples after Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction, Microchem. J., 93: 220-224 (2009). 

[34] Deng Q., Chen M., Kong L., Zhao X., Guo J., Wen X., Novel Coupling of Surfactant Assisted Emulsification Dispersive Liquid–Liquid Microextraction with Spectrophotometric Determination for Ultra Trace Nickel, Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc., 104: 64-69 (2013).

[35] Chavira F.L., Huerta-Diaz M.A., Chee-Barragan A., New Methodology for Extraction of Total Metals from Macroalgae and its Application to Selected Samples Collected in Pristine Zones from Baja California, Mexico, Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 70: 809-816 (2003).

[36] Wang L., Cao P., Li W., Tong P., Zhang X., Du Y., Simultaneous Detection of Trace Metal Ions in Water by Solid Phase Extraction Spectroscopy Combined with Multivariate Calibration, Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc., 159: 151-156 (2016).

[39] Shrivas K., Monitoring of Copper Level in Water and Soil Samples by Using Liquid–Liquid Extraction, Environ. Monit. Assess., 168: 315-319 (2010).

[40] Naeemullah Kazi T.G., Afridi H.I., Shah F., Arain S.S., Brahman K.D., Ali J., Arain M.S., Simultaneous Determination of Silver and other Heavy Metals in Aquatic Environment Receiving Wastewater from Industrial Area, Applying an Enrichment Method, Arab. J. Chem., 9: 105-113 (2016)