Characterization of Bi2Te3 Nanostructure by Using a Cost-Effective Chemical Solution Route

Document Type: Research Article

Authors

1 Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Manisa Celal Bayar University, 45140, Manisa, TURKEY

2 Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Islamic University, 7003, Kushtia, BANGLADESH

Abstract

An efficient and cost-effective approach in the synthesis process of the bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) powders and pellets were developed based on a chemical solution route. The route consists of dissolving of both the bismuth (III) nitrate pentahydrate, Bi(NO3)3.5H2O, and tellurium dioxide, TeO2 into the same inorganic nitric acid, HNO3 with the two-step precipitation of sodium hydroxide, NaOH and sodium borohydride, NaBH4. The different characterization parameters such as X–Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X–ray (EDX), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), UltraViolet (UV) absorbance and Fourier Transform InfraRed (FT-IR) spectrometry were carried out. As a result of these, the developed powders possessed a rhombohedral crystal structure exhibiting a nanocrystalline form with a crystalline size of about 10 nm. The elemental of Bi and Te were developed with their stoichiometric atomic ratio of (30.15):(48.19). Furthermore, the TEM micrographs showed an aggregate phenomenon and the primary crystalline size being quite low. Additionally, the produced Bi2Te3 pellets indicated a smooth surface with an average roughness value of 58 nm according to the AFM image. Absorption has occurred at about a range within 1 (arbitrary unit). Ultimately, the FT-IR demonstrated that the C–H, O–H, C–O, and C–S bonds were similar to the Bi2Te3 nanostructured materials.

Keywords

Main Subjects


[1] Nassary M.M., Shaban H.T., El–Sadek M.S., Semiconductor Parameters of Bi2Te3 Single Crystal, Materials Chemistry and Physics, 113(1): 385-388 (2009).

[2] Snyder G.J., Toberer E.S., Complex Thermoelectric Materials, Materials for Sustainable Energy, 7: 101-110 (2010).

[3] Elsheikh M.H., Shnawah D.A., Sabri M.F.M., Said S.B.M., Hassan M.H., Bashir M.B.A., Mohamad M., A Review on Thermoelectric Renewable Energy: Principle Parameters that Affect Their Performance, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 30: 337-355 (2014).

[4] Tenorio H.C.R.L., Vieira D.A., De Souza C.P., Measurement of Parameters and Degradation of Thermoelectric Modules, IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine, 20(2): 13-19 (2017).

[5] Man E.A., Schaltz E., Rosendahl L., Rezaniakolaei A., Platzek D., A High Temperature Experimental Characterization Procedure for Oxide–Based Thermoelectric Generator Modules Under Transient Conditions, Energies, 8(11): 12839-12847 (2015).

[6] M. Hong, Z.G. Chen, L. Yang, and J. Zou, Enhancing Thermoelectric Performance of Bi2Te3 Based Nanostructures Through Rational Structure Design, Nanoscale, 16: 8681-8686  (2016)

[7] Mamur H., Bhuiyan M.R.A., Korkmaz F., Nil M, A Review on Bismuth Telluride (Bi2Te3) Nanostructure for Thermoelectric Applications, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 82(3): 3047-3052 (2018).

[8] Bhuiyan M.R.A., Mamur H., Review of the Bismuth Telluride (Bi2Te3) Nanoparticle: Growth and Characterization, International Journal of Energy Applications and Technologies, 3(2): 27-31 (2016).

[9] Al-Dahash G., Khilkala W.M., Abd Alwahid S.N., Preparation and Characterization of ZnO Nanoparticles by Laser Ablation in NaOH Aqueous Solution, Iranian Journal of Chemistry and Chemistry Engineering (IJCCE), 37(1): 11-16 (2018).

[10] Mansouri G., Mansouri M., Synthesis and Characterization of Co-Mn Nanocatalyst Prepared by Thermal Decomposition for Fischer-Tropsch Reaction, Iranian Journal of Chemistry and Chemistry Engineering (IJCCE), 37(3): 1-9 (2018).

[11] Chen S., Cai K., Shen S., Synthesis via a Microwave–assisted Wet Chemical Method and Characterization of Bi2Te3 with Various Morphologies, Journal of Electronic Materials, 45(3): 1425-1432 (2016).

[12] Takashiri M., Kai S., Wada K., Takasugi S., Tomita K., Role of Stirring Assist during solvothermal Synthesis for Preparing Single–Crystal Bismuth Telluride Hexagonal Nanoplates, Materials Chemistry and Physics, 173: 213-218 (2016).

[13] Liang Y., Wang W., Zeng B., Zhang G., He Q., Fu J., Influence of NaOH on the Formation and Morphology of Bi2Te3 Nanostructures in a Solvothermal Process: from Hexagonal Nanoplates to Nanorings, Materials Chemistry and Physics, 129(1–2): 90-98 (2011).

[14] Díaz O.C., de Melo Pereira O., Echavarría A.E., Substrate Influence on Preferential Orientation of Bi2Te3 Layers Grown by Physical Vapor Transport Using Elemental Bi and Te Sources, Materials Chemistry and Physics, 198: 341-345 (2017).

[15] Rashad M.M., El-Dissouky A., Soliman H.M., Elseman A.M., Refaat H.M., Ebrahim A., Structure Evaluation of Bismuth Telluride (Bi2Te3) Nanoparticles with Enhanced Seebeck Coefficient and Low Thermal Conductivity, Materials Research Innovations, 22(6): 315-323 (2018).

[16] Zhou L., Zhang X., Zhao X., Zhu T., Qin Y., Influence of NaOH on the Synthesis of Bi2Te3 via
a Low-Temperature Aqueous Chemical Method
, Journal of Materials Science, 44(13): 3528-3532 (2009).

[17] Yokoyama S., Sato K., Muramatsu M., Yamasuge T., Itoh, T., Motomiya, K., Takahashi, H., Tohji, K., Green Synthesis and Formation Mechanism of Nanostructured Bi2Te3 Using Ascorbic Acid in Aqueous Solution, Advanced Powder Technology, 26(3): 789-796 (2015).

[18] Liu Y., Wang Q., Pan J., Sun Y., Zhang L., Song S., Hierarchical Bi2Te3 Nanostrings: Green Synthesis
and Their Thermoelectric Properties
, Chemistry – A European Journal, 24(39): 9765–9768 (2018).

[19] Mamur H., Dilmac O.F., Korucu H., Bhuiyan M.R.A., Cost Effective Chemical Solution Synthesis of Bi2Te3 Nanostructure for Thermoelectric Applications, Micro & Nano Letters, 13(8): 1117-1120 (2018).

[20] Mamur H., Bhuiyan M.R.A., Development of Bismuth Telluride Nanostructure Pellet for Thermoelectric Applications, Hittite Journal of Science & Engineering5(4): 293-299 (2018).

[21] Jiang R., Huang T., Liu J., Zhuang J., Yu A., A Novel Method to Prepare Nanostructured Manganese Dioxide and its Electrochemical Properties as a Super Capacitor Electrode, Electrochimica Acta, 54(11): 3047-3052 (2009).

[22] Baruah S., Dutta J., pH–Dependent Growth of Zinc Oxide Nanorods, Journal of Crystal Growth, 311(8): 2549-2554 (2009).

[23] Bhuiyan M.R.A., Hasan S.F., Optical Properties of Polycrystalline AgxGa2−xSe2 (0.4⩽ x⩽ 1.6) Thin Films, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 91(2-3): 148-152 (2007).

[24] Sumithra S., Takas N.J., Misra D.K., Nolting W.M., Poudeu P.F.P., Stokes K.L., Enhancement in Thermoelectric Figure of Merit in Nanostructured Bi2Te3 with Semimetal Nanoinclusions, Advanced Energy Materials, 1(6): 1141-1147 (2011).

[25] Keshavarz M.K., Vasilevskiy D., Masut R.A., Turenne S., Synthesis and Characterization of Bismuth Telluride–Based Thermoelectric Nanocomposites Containing MoS2 Nano–Inclusions, Materials Characterization, 95: 44-49 (2014).

[26] Monshi A., Foroughi M.R., Monshi M.R., Modified Scherrer Equation to Estimate More Accurately Nano–Crystallite Size Using XRD, World Journal of Nano Science and Engineering, 2(3): 154-160 (2012).

[27] Kulsi C., Mitra M., Kargupta K., Banerjee D., Thermoelectric Properties of Nanostructured Bismuth Telluride (Bi2Te3) with Annealing Time and its Composite with Reduced Graphene Oxide (RGO), Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, 1-11 (2018).

[28] Ivanov O., Maradudina O., Lyubushkin R., Grain Size Effect on Electrical Resistivity of Bulk Nanograined Bi2Te3 Material, Materials Characterization99: 175-179 (2015).

[29] Benjamin S.L., de Groot C.H., Gurnani C., Hector A.L., Huang R., Koukharenko E., Levason W., Reid G., Controlling the Nanostructure of Bismuth Telluride by Selective Chemical Vapour Deposition from
a Single Source Precursor
, Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 2(14): 4865-4869 (2014).

[30] Krumrain J., Mussler G., Borisova S., Stoica T., Plucinski L., Schneider C.M., Grützmacher D., MBE Growth Optimization of Topological Insulator Bi2Te3 Films, Journal of Crystal Growth, 324(1): 115-118 (2011).

[31] Srivastava P., Singh K., Low Temperature Reduction Route to Synthesis Bismuth Telluride (Bi2Te3) Nanoparticles: Structural and Optical Studies, Journal of Experimental Nanoscience, 9(10): 1064-1074 (2014).

[32] Srivastava P., Singh K., Effects of Cs–doping on Morphological, Optical and Electrical Properties of Bi2Te3 Nanostructures, Materials Letters, 136:337-340 (2014).

[33] Fu J., Song S., Zhang X., Cao F., Zhou L., Li X., Zhang H., Bi2Te3 Nanoplates and Nanoflowers: Synthesized by Hydrothermal Process and Their Enhanced Thermoelectric Properties, Cryst. Eng. Comm, 14(6): 2159-2165 (2012).