Solar photocatalytic degradation of Diclofenac by N-doped TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized by ultrasound

Document Type: Research Article

Authors

1 Sonochemical Research Center, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, 91779, Mashhad, Iran

2 Department of chemistry, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad , Iran

3 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran

Abstract

Anatase N-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized using ultrasound at low frequency and at room temperature. The samples were characterized by techniques including XRD, TEM, HRTEM, FTIR, XPS, and UV–Vis spectroscopy. XPS indicated the existence of nitrogen as an anion dopant within the TiO2 lattice. The solar photocatalytic activity of N-doped TiO2 was studied for the degradation and complete mineralization of diclofenac (DCF). The results showed that the catalytic activity of the nanoparticles was related to the operating conditions in the synthesis such as temperature, and time of sonication. DCF degradation followed the pseudo-first-order kinetics model under different conditions. Results showed that photogenerated electrons on the catalyst surface played an important role in the mechanism of photodegradation of DCF. It was also confirmed that in the presence of oxygen, the formation of oxidative species such as singlet oxygen and superoxide radical had major roles in the degradation of DCF.

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