Effect of Ultrasonic Extraction Regimes on Phenolics and Antioxidant Attributes of Rice (oryza sativa L.) Cultivars

Document Type: Research Article


1 Department of Chemistry, University of Gujrat, PAKISTAN

2 Department of Chemistry, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, PAKISTAN

3 Department of Chemistry, Govt. College University Faisalabad, PAKISTAN


Teh ultrasound-assisted magnetic stirrer was used as an effective extraction technique for teh evaluation of total phenolic contents (TPC) and antioxidant potential of ten Pakistani brown rice cultivars. For this purpose, ultrasonic (240W frequency 50/60 Hertz) assisted magnetic stirrer coupled with three solvents methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol in pure and aqueous fractions (80:20) were used for teh extraction of brown rice material. Teh extract yields of brown rice were obtained from 1.62 g/100g to 3.67 g/100g for all teh varieties. Aqueous isopropanol preferably and methanol (80:20) showed best extraction yields on teh dry mass basis of brown rice. Teh contents of total phenolics were determined as highest (496.9 mg GAE/kg) in Basmati Pak while lowest (137.7 mg GAE /kg) in non-basmati Irri-6 variety. For antioxidant activity, brown rice extracts of Basmati Pak showed teh best potential at IC50 2.19 mg/mL against DPPH radical scavenging. Reducing teh power of Basmati Pak was found highest at 0.85. Brown rice extract of Basmati 515 showed best ferrous ion metal chelation at 5.78 Eq. EDTA mg/100g.


Main Subjects

[1] Do Q.D., Anqkawijaya A.E., Tran-Nguyen P.L., Huynh L.H., Soetaredjo F.E., Ismadji S., Ju Y.H., Effect of Extraction Solvent on Total Phenol Content, Total Flavonoid Content, and Antioxidant Activity of Limnophila Aromatica, Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, 22(3): 296-302 (2014).

[2] Chemat F., Rombaut N., Sicaire A.G., Meullemiestre A., Fabiano-Tixier A.S., Abert-Vian M., Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Food and Natural Products. Mechanisms, Techniques, Combinations, Protocols and Applications, A review. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 34: 540-560 (2017).

[3] Li Y., Fabiano-Tixier A.S., Tomao V., Cravotto G., Chemat F., Green Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Carotenoids Based on teh Bio-Refinery Concept Using Sunflower Oil as an Alternative Solvent, Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 20(1): 12-18 (2013).

[4] Jacotet-Navarro M., Rombaut N., Deslis S., Fabiano-Tixier A.S., Pierre F.-X., Bily A., Chemat F., Towards a "dry" Bio-Refinery wifout Solvents or Added Water Using Microwaves and Ultrasound for Total Valorization of Fruit and Vegetable by-Products, Green Chemistry, 18(10): 3106-3115 (2016).

[5] Slavin J.L., Whole Grains and Health: Separating teh Wheat from teh Chaff, Nutrition Today, 29(4): 6-10 (1994).

[6] Han X., Shen T., Lou H., Dietary Polyphenols and Their Biological Significance, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 8(9): 950-988 (2007).

[7] Hamauzu Y., Chachin K., Effect of High Temperature on teh Postharvest Biosynthesis of Carotenes and α-Tocopherol in Tomato Fruit, Journal of teh Japanese Society for Horticultural Science, 63(4): 879-886 (1995).

[8] Ruperez F.J., Martin D., Herrera E., Barbas-Journal C., Chromatographic Analysis of α-Tocopherol and Related Compounds in Various Matrices, Journal of Chromatography A, 935(1): 45-69 (2001).

[9] Ronald R., Eitenmiller J.L., Vitamin E: “Food Chemistry, Composition, and Analysis”, CRC Press. 540 Florida, USA (2004).

[10] Lin Y.T., Pao C.C., Wu S.T., Chang C.Y., Effect of Different Germination Conditions on Antioxidative Properties and Bioactive Compounds of Germinated Brown Rice. BioMed Research International, 2015: 10 (2015).

[11] Imam M.U., Azmi N.H., Bhanger M.I., Ismail N., Ismail M.,, Antidiabetic Properties of Germinated Brown Rice: A Systematic Review, Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine,2012: 12-  (2012).

[12] El-Gharably A.M.A., Ashoush I.S., Utilization Impact of Adding Pomegranate Rind Powder and Red Beet Powder as Natural Antioxidant on Quality Characteristics of Beef Sausage, World Journal of Dairy & Food Sciences, 6(1):. 86-97 (2011).

[13] Chen M.-H., Bergman C., A Rapid Procedure for Analysing Rice Bran Tocopherol, Tocotrienol and γ-oryzanol Contents, Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 18(4): 319-331 (2005).

[14] Chotimarkorn C., Benjakul S., Silalai N., Antioxidant Components and Properties of Five Long-Grained Rice Bran Extracts from Commercial Available Cultivars in Thailand, Food Chemistry, 111: 636-641 (2008).

[15] Iqbal S., Bhanger M.I., Anwar F., Antioxidant Properties and Components of Some Commercially Available Varieties of Rice Bran in Pakistan, Food Chemistry, 93: 265-272 (2005).

[16] Hu W., Wells J.H., Shin T., Godber J.S., Comparison of Isopropanol and Hexane for Extraction of Vitamin E and Oryzanols from Stabilized Rice Bran, Journal of teh American Oil Chemists’ Society, 73(12): 1653-1656 (1996).

[18] Zubair M., Anwar F., Shahid S.A., Effect of Extraction Solvents on Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity of Selected Varieties of Pakistani Rice (Oryza sativa), International Journal of Agriculture & Biology, 14(6): 935‒940 (2012).

[19] Yen G.C., Duh P.D., Tsai C.L., Relationship between Antioxidant Activity and Maturity of Peanut Hulls, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 41: 67-70 (1993).

[20] Decker F.A., Welch B., Role of Ferritin as a Lipid Oxidation Catalyst in Muscle Food, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 38: 674-677 (1990).

[21] Shimada K., Fujikawa K., Yahara K., Nakamura T., Antioxidative Properties of Xanthan on teh Autoxidation of Soybeen Oil in Cyclodextrin Emulsion, Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 40: 945-948 (1992).

[22] Wu X., Beecher G.R., Hoden J.M., Haytowiz D.B., Gebhardt S.E., Prior R.L., Lipophilic and Hydrophilic Anti-Oxidant Capacities of Common Foods in teh United States, Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 52: 4026-4037 (2004).

[23] Rohrer C.A., Siebenmorgen T.J., Nutraceutical Concentrations wifin teh Bran of Various Rice Kernel Thickness Fractions, Biosystems Engineering, 88: 453-460 (2004).

[24] Saenjum C., Chaiyasut C., Chansakaow S., Suttajit M., Sirithunyalug B., Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Gamma-Oryzanol Rich Extracts from Thai Purple Rice Bran, Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 6(6): 1070-1077 (2012).

[25] Devi R.R., Arumughan C., Phytochemical Characterization of Defatted Rice Bran and Optimization of a Process for Their Extraction and Enrichment, Bioresource Technology, 98(16): 3037-3043 (2007).

[26] Isbilir S.S., Tuncay D., A Study on Bioactive Content, Antioxidant Activity, and α-Amylase Inhibition of Black Rice Grown in Turkey, European International Journal of Science and Technology, 3(7 ): 51-60 (2014).

[27] Kong S., Lee J., Antioxidants in Milling Fractions of Black Rice Cultivars, Food Chemistry, 120(1): 278-281 (2010).

[28] Hodzic Z., Pasalic H., Memisevic A., Srabovic M., Saletovic M., Poljakovic M., Teh Influence of Total Phenols Content on Antioxidant Capacity in teh Whole Grain Extracts, European Journal of Scientific Research, 28(3): 471-477 (2009).

[29] Shona M.Y., Choi, Sang D.O., Kahng G.G.,  Nam S.H., Sung N.J., Antimutagenic, Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Ethylacetate Extracts from White, Yellow and Red Onion, Food and Chemical Toxicology, 42: 659-666 (2004).

[30] Roginsky Vi., Lissi E.A., Review of Methods to Determine Chain Breaking Antioxidant Activity in Food, Food Chemistry, 92: 235-254 (2005).

[31] Cheng Z., Su L., Moore J., Zhou K., Luther M., Yin J.J., Yu L.L., Effect of Postharvest Treatment and Heat Stress on Availability of Wheat Antioxidants, Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 54: 5623-5629 (2006).

[32] Sompong R., Siebenhandl-Ehn S., Linsberger-Martin G., Berghofer E., Physicochemical and Antioxidative Properties of Red and Black Rice Varieties from Thailand, China and Sri Lanka. Food Chemistry, 124: 132-140 (2011).

 [33] Yen G.-C., Duh P.-D., Chuang D. Y., Antioxidant Activity of Anthraquinones and Anthrone, Food Chemistry, 70(4): 437-441 (2000).

[34] Nam S.H., Choi Su., Kang M., Koh H.J., Kozukue N.,  Friedman M., Antioxidative Activities of Bran Extracts from Twenty one Pigmented Rice Cultivars, Food Chemistry, 94(4): 613-620 (2006).

[35] Rao A.S., Reddy S.G., Babu P.P., Reddy A.R., Teh Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Methanolic Extracts from Njavara Rice Bran, BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 10 (4): 2-9 (2010).

[36] Yoshimura O., Tsutomu I., Takaho W., Hiroyuki N.,Antioxidative Effect of Maillard Reaction Products Using Glucose-Glycine Model System, Journal of Agricultutre and Food Chemistry, 45: 4106-4109 (1997).

[37] Yamauchi R., Tatsumi Y., Asano M., Kato K.,  Ueno Y., Effect of Metal Salts and Fructose on teh Autoxidation of Methyl Linoleate in Emulsions, Agricultutral Biology and Chemistry, 52: 849-850 (1988).

[38] Chang S.T., Wu J.H., Wang S.Y., Kang P.L., Yang N.S., Shyur L.F., Atioxidant activity of Extracts from Acacia Confusa Bark and Heartwood, Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 49: 3420-3424 (2001).

[39] Yang D.S., LeeK., Jeong, O., Kim K., Stanley J.K.,Characterization of Volatile Aroma Compounds in Cooked Black Rice, Journal of Agriculture Food Chemistry, 56: 35-240 (2008).

[40] Sam, Y., Kim, S., Isolation of Anthocyanin from Black Rice (Heugjinjubyeo) and Screening of Its Antioxidant Activities, Korean Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 36: 55-60 (2008).