Rheological Behavior of Water-Ethylene Glycol Based Graphene Oxide Nanofluids

Document Type: Research Article


Faculty of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Tabriz, P.O. Box 5166616471 Tabriz, I.R. IRAN


Traditionally water-ethylene glycol mixture based nanofluids are used in cold regions as a coolant in the car radiators. In the present study, the rheological properties of water-ethylene glycol based graphene oxide nanofluid are studied using Non-Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics (NEMD) method at different temperatures, volume concentrations, and shear rates. NEMD simulations are performed with considering 75/25, 60/40, and 40/60 ratios of water/ethylene glycol as the base fluids at volume concentrations of 3%, 4%, and 5% graphene oxide nanosheets. The results, which demonstrated good agreement with experimental data, show that the viscosity and density of base fluids significantly decrease with temperature and increases with ethylene glycol volume fraction. Also, the viscosity and density of nanofluids depends directly on the volume concentrations of nanoparticles and decreases with increasing temperature. For example, at 289.85 K, the viscosity of water (75%)-ethylene glycol (25%) based nanofluids containing 3%, 4% and 5% volume concentrations of nanoparticles increased by 33%, 43%, and 56%, respectively. Similarly, the density of the same nanofluids increased by 1%, 1.7 %, and 2.2%, respectively. Moreover, the theoretical models confirm the obtained results. According to the shear rate analysis, the water-ethylene glycol based graphene oxide nanofluid behaves as a non-Newtonian fluid.


Main Subjects

[1] Namburu P.K., Kulkarni D.P., Misra D., Das D.K., Viscosity of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles Dispersed in Ethylene Glycol and Water Mixture, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 32: 397-402 (2007).

[2] Zafarani-Moattar M.T., Majdan-Cegincara R., Effect of Temperature on Volumetric and Transport Properties of Nanofluids Containing ZnO Nanoparticles Poly (ethylene glycol) and Water, The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics, 54: 55-67 (2012).

[3] Choi S.U.S., Eastman J.A., Enhancing Thermal Conductivity of Fluids with Nanoparticles, ASME-Publications-Fed, 231: 99-106 (1995).

[4] Syam Sundar L., Venkata Ramana E., Singh M.K., Sousa A.C.M., Thermal Conductivity and Viscosity of Stabilized Ethylene Glycol and Water Mixture Al2O3 Nanofluids for Heat Transfer Applications: An Experimental Study, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 56: 86-95 (2014).

[5] Murshed S., Leong K., Yang C., Enhanced Thermal Conductivity of TiO2—Water Based Nanofluids, International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 44: 367-73 (2005).

[6] Wasan D.T., Nikolov A.D., Spreading of Nanofluids on Solids, Nature, 423: 156-159 (2003).

[7] Chaudhury M.K., Complex Fluids: Spread the Word About Nanofluids, Nature, 423: 131-2 (2003).

[8] Lou Z., Yang M., Molecular Dynamics Simulations on the Shear Viscosity of Al2O3 Nanofluids, Computers & Fluids, 117: 17-23 (2015).

[9] Sheremet M.A., Pop I., Free Convection in a Porous Horizontal Cylindrical Annulus with a Nanofluid Using Buongiorno’s Model, Computers & Fluids, 118: 182-190 (2015).

[11] Mohebbi K., Rafee R., Talebi F., Effects of Rib Shapes on Heat Transfer Characteristics of Turbulent Flow of Al2O3-Water Nanofluid inside Ribbed Tubes, Iranian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (IJCCE), 34: 61-77 (2015).

[12] Akram S., Nadeem S., Influence of Nanoparticles Phenomena on the Peristaltic Flow of Pseudoplastic Fluid in an Inclined Asymmetric Channel with Different Wave Forms, Iranian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (IJCCE), 36(2): 107-125 (2017).

[13] Tao X., Jiazheng Z., Kang X., The Ball-Bearing Effect of Diamond Nanoparticles as an Oil Additive, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 29: 2932 (1996).

[16] Jiao D., Zheng S., Wang Y., Guan R., Cao B., The Tribology Properties of Alumina/Silica Composite Nanoparticles as Lubricant Additives, Applied Surface Science, 257: 5720-5725 (2011).

[18] Syam Sundar L., Singh M.K., Sousa A., Thermal Conductivity of Ethylene Glycol and Water Mixture Based Fe3O4 Nanofluid, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 49: 17-24 (2013).

[19] Reddy M.C.S., Rao V.V., Experimental Studies on Thermal Conductivity of Blends of Ethylene Glycol-Water-Based TiO2 Nanofluids, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 46: 31-36 (2013).

[20] Naddaf E., Abedi M.R., Zabihi M.S., Imani A., Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Ethanol and Ethylene Glycol onto Poly (o-Anisidine)-Nickel Composite Electrode, Iranian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (IJCCE), 36: 59-70 (2017).

[21] Hajjar Z., Morad Rashidi A., Ghozatloo A., Enhanced Thermal Conductivities of Graphene Oxide Nanofluids, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 57: 128-131 (2014).

[22] Wang G., Shen X., Wang B., Yao J., Park J., Synthesis and Characterisation of Hydrophilic and Organophilic Graphene Nanosheets, Carbon, 47: 1359-136464 (2009).

[23] Kim J., Cote L.J., Kim F., Yuan W., Shull K.R., Huang J., Graphene Oxide Sheets at Interfaces, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 132: 8180-81866 (2010).

[24] Shao G., Lu Y., Wu F., Yang C., Zeng F., Wu Q., Graphene Oxide: the Mechanisms of Oxidation and Exfoliation, Journal of Materials Science, 47: 4400-4409 (2013).

[25] Rosas J.H., Gutiérrez R.R., Escobedo-Morales A., Anota E.C., First Principles Calculations of the Electronic and Chemical Properties of Graphene, Graphane, and Graphene Oxide, Journal of Molecular Modeling, 17: 1133-1139 (2011).

[26] Shen X., Lin X., Yousefi N., Jia J., Kim J-K., Wrinkling in Graphene Sheets and Graphene Oxide Papers, Carbon, 66: 84-92 (2014).

[27] Baby T.T., Ramaprabhu S., Enhanced Convective Heat Transfer Using Graphene Dispersed Nanofluids, Nanoscale Research Letters, 6: 1-9 (2011).

[28] Yu W., Xie H., Li Y., Chen L., Wang Q., Experimental Investigation on the Thermal Transport Properties of Ethylene Glycol Based Nanofluids Containing Low Volume Concentration Diamond Nanoparticles, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 380: 1-5 (2011).

[30] Suganthi K., Rajan K., A Formulation Strategy for Preparation of ZnO–Propylene Glycol–Water Nanofluids with Improved Transport Properties, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfe, 71: 653-663 (2014).

[31] Wang X., Xu X., S. Choi S.U., Thermal Conductivity of Nanoparticle-Fluid Mixture, Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transf, 13: 474-480 (1999).

[32] Mahbubul I., Saidur R., Amalina M., Latest Developments on the Viscosity of Nanofluids, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 55: 874-885 (2012).

[33] Chen H., Ding Y., He Y., Tan C., Rheological Behaviour of Ethylene Glycol Based Titania Nanofluids, Chemical Physics Letters, 444: 333-337 (2007).

[34] Allen M.P., Tildesley D.J., “Computer Simulation of Liquids”, Oxford University Press; (1989).

[35] Hu C., Bai M., Lv J., Wang P., Li X., Molecular Dynamics Simulation on the Friction Properties of Nanofluids Confined by Idealized Surfaces, Tribology International, 8: 152-159 (2014).

[36] Lu W.-Q., Fan Q.-M., Study for the Particle's Scale Effect on Some Thermophysical Properties of Nanofluids by a Simplified Molecular Dynamics Method, Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements, 32: 282-289 (2008).

[37] Frenkel D., Smit B., “Understanding Molecular Simulation: from Algorithms to Applications”, Academic Press; (2001).

[38] Maruyama S., Molecular Dynamics Method for Microscale Heat Transfer, Advances in Mumerical Heat Transfer, 2: 189-226 (2000).

[39] Eapen J., Li J., Yip S., “Probing Transport Mechanisms in Nanofluids by Molecular Dynamics Simulations”, Proceeding of the 18th National and 7th ISHMT–ASME Heat and Mass Transfer Conference, IIT Guwahati, India; (2006).

[40] Plimpton S., Fast Parallel Algorithms for Short-Range Molecular Dynamics, Journal of Computational Physics, 117: 1-19 (1995).

[41] Erfan-Niya H., Izadkhah S., Molecular insights into Structural Properties Around the Threshold of Gas Hydrate Formation, Petroleum Science and Technology, 34:1964-71 (2016).

[42] Gharebeiglou M., Erfan-Niya H., Izadkhah S., Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study on the Structure II Clathrate-Hydrates of Methane+ Cyclic Organic Compounds, Petroleum Science and Technology, 34: 1226-1232 (2016).

[43] Dauber‐Osguthorpe P., Roberts V.A., Osguthorpe D.J., Wolff J., Genest M., Hagler A.T., Structure and Energetics of Ligand Binding to Proteins: Escherichia Coli Dihydrofolate Reductase‐Trimethoprim, A Drug‐Receptor System, Proteins: Structure, Function, and Bioinformatics, 4: 31-47 (1998).

[44] Sadus R.J., “Molecular Simulation of Fluids”, Amsterdam: Elsevier Science; (2002).

[45] Chang J, Kim H., Molecular Dynamic Simulation and Equation of State of Lennard-Jones Chain Fluids, Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering, 15: 544-51 (1998).

[46] NOSÉ S.I., A Molecular Dynamics Method for Simulations in the Canonical Ensemble, Molecular Physics, 100: 191-8 (2002).

[47] Berendsen H.J., Postma J.P.M., van Gunsteren W.F., DiNola A., Haak J., Molecular Dynamics with Coupling to an External Bath, The Journal of Chemical Physics, 81: 3684-3690 (1984).

[48] Simmsons A., Cummings P., Non-Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Dense Fluid Methane, Chemical Physics Letters, 129: 92-98 (1986).

[49] Wang B., Cummings P., Non-Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics Calculation of the Shear Viscosity of Carbon Dioxide/Ethane Mixtures, Molecular Simulation, 10: 1-11 (1993).

[50] Lees A., Edwards S., The Computer Study of Transport Processes under Extreme Conditions, Journal of Physics C: Solid State Physics, 5: 1921 (1972).

[51] Sun C., Lu W.-Q., Liu J., Bai B., Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Nanofluid’s Effective Thermal Conductivity in High-Shear-Rate Couette Flow, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 54: 2560-2567 (2011).

[52] Pak B.C., Cho Y.I., Hydrodynamic and Heat Transfer Study of Dispersed Fluids with Submicron Metallic Oxide Particles, Experimental Heat Transfer an International Journal, 11: 151-170 (1998).

[53] Batchelor G.K., “An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics”, Cambridge University Press; (2000).

[54] Bagri A., Mattevi C., Acik M., Chabal Y.J., Chhowalla M., Shenoy V.B., Structural Evolution During the Reduction of Chemically Derived Graphene Oxide, Nature Chemistry, 2: 581-587 (2010).

[55] “Handbook A.F., " Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers", American Society of Heating, Inc: Atlanta, GA, USA. (2009).