Synthesis and Characterization of Nanoparticles Propolis Using Beeswax

Document Type: Research Article

Authors

1 Department of Chemical Engineering, Quchan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Quchan, I.R. IRAN

2 Department of Chemical Engineering, Shahrood Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrood, I.R. IRAN

3 Department of Environmental Engineering, Shahrood Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrood, I.R. IRAN

Abstract

In order to protection, convenient release, and increase of antibacterial of capsules to the treatment of diseases, propolis nanoparticles encapsulate. Beeswax is used for covering because of its special physical and chemical properties, ineffective and inactivity and ease of mixingwith materials without any adverse reaction. In this study, nanotechnology and renewable natural compounds of beeswax were used in the process of encapsulating for protection against adverse environmental conditions. At first, propolis nanoparticles were mixed withchloroform then ammonia buffer and Tween -80 was added to it while stirring with speed rpm 300. The mixture was shocked to form the capsule. After filtration andwashing produced capsules were dried for 48 hours at room temperature. Assessment of formation and performance of the capsules was done by changing parameters such as pH, time and temperature, the loading of nanoparticles by spectrophotometry method and increasing the antimicrobial properties using microbial culture.  Also, FT-IR analysis was done to prove the physical transplant of wax and propolis. According to TEM images, the size of produced capsules was estimated in the range of 200 to 500 nm with 95% distribution percentages. Based on Taguchi testing, the optimum time, temperature and pH for the release of encapsulated nanoparticles were 10 minutes, 43ºC and 10, respectively.

Keywords

Main Subjects


[1] Wang B., Sheng H., Shi Y., Hu W., Hong N., Zeng W., Ge H., Yu X., Song L, and Hu Y. Recent Advances for Microencapsulation of Flame Retardant, Polymer Degradation and Stability, 113: 96-109, (2015).

[2] Aguilar F., Autrup H., Barlow S., Castle L., Crebelli R., Dekant W., Engel K-H., Gontard N., Gott D, Grilli S., "Beeswax (E 901) as a Glazing Agent and as Carrier for Flavours Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC)", (2007).

[3] Pinzón F., Torres A., Hoffmann W, Lamprecht I., Thermoanalytical and Infrared Spectroscopic Investigations on Wax Samples of Native Colombian Bees Living in Different Altitudes, Engineering
in Life Sciences
, 13(6): 520-527, (2013).

[4] Ranjha N.M., Khan H., Naseem S., Encapsulation and Characterization of Controlled Release Flurbiprofen Loaded Microspheres Using Beeswax as an Encapsulating Agent, Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, 21(5): 1621-1630, (2010).

[5] Gowda D., Manjunatha M., Balmurlidhara V., Khan M S. Study on Encapsulation of Ranolazine in Bees Wax Microspheres: Preparation, Characterization and Release Kinetics of Microspheres, Der Pharmacia Lettre, 2(6): 232-243, (2010).

[6] Sforcin J.M., Bankova V., Propolis: Is There a Potential for the Development of New Drugs? Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 133(2): 253-260, (2011).

[7] Lotfy M., Biological Activity of Bee Propolis in Health and Disease, Asian Pac. J. Cancer. Prev., 7(1): 22-31, (2006).

[8] Bankova V., Popova M., Trusheva B., Propolis Volatile Compounds: Chemical Diversity and Biological Activity: a Review, Chemistry Central Journal, 8(1): 28, (2014).

[9] Popova M., Chen C.N., Chen P.Y., Huang C.Y., Bankova V., A Validated Spectrophotometric Method for Quantification of Prenylated Flavanones in Pacific Propolis from Taiwan, Phytochemical Analysis, 21(2): 186-191, (2010).

[10] Gardana C., Scaglianti M., Pietta P., Simonetti P., Analysis of the Polyphenolic Fraction of Propolis from Different Sources by Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry, Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 45(3): 390-399, (2007).

[11] Chis-Buiga I., Olariu L., Tulcan C., The Propolis Extract Protective Role on Red Blood Cells Antioxidant Enzymes in Cadmium Intoxicated Rats,. Lucrari Stiintifice-Universitatea de Stiinte Agricole a Banatului Timisoara, Medicina Veterinara, 40: 314-318 (2007).

[12] SFORCIN J.M., Fernandes Júnior A., Lopes C., Funari S., Bankova V., Seasonal effect of Brazilian propolis on Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis, Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins, 7(1): 139-144 (2001).

[13] Gekker G., Hu S., Spivak M., Lokensgard J.R., Peterson P.K., Anti-HIV-1 Activity of Propolis in CD4+ Lymphocyte and Microglial Cell Cultures, Journal of ethnopharmacology, 102(2): 158-163 (2005).

[14] Orsi R., Sforcin J., Rall V., Funari S., Barbosa L., Fernandes J., Susceptibility profile of Salmonella Against the Antibacterial Activity of Propolis Produced in Two Regions of Brazil, Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases, 11(2): 109-116 (2005).

[15] Orsi R.D.O., Funari S., Barbattini R., Giovani C., Frilli F., Sforcin J, Bankova V., Radionuclides
in Honeybee Propolis (Apis mellifera L.)
, Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 76(4): 637-640 (2006).

[16] Freitas S., Shinohara L., Sforcin J., Guimarães S., In Vitro Effects of Propolis on Giardia Duodenalis Trophozoites, Phytomedicine, 13(3): 170-175 (2006).

[17] Bufalo M.C., Candeias J M., Sforcin J M., In Vitro Cytotoxic Effect of Brazilian Green Propolis on Human Laryngeal Epidermoid Carcinoma (HEp-2) Cells, Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 6(4): 483-487, (2009).

[18] Búfalo M., Figueiredo A., De Sousa J., Candeias J., Bastos J, Sforcin J., Anti‐Poliovirus Activity of Baccharis Dracunculifolia and Propolis by Cell Viability Determination and Real‐Time PCR, Journal of Applied Microbiology, 107(5): 1669-1680, (2009).

[19] Yaghoubi M., Gh G., Satari R., Antimicrobial Activity of Iranian Propolis and Its Chemical Composition DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 15(1): 45-48 (2007).

[20] Sforcin J., Propolis and the Immune System: A Review, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 113(1): 1-14, (2007).

[21] Bankova V., Chemical Diversity of Propolis and the Problem of Standardization, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 100(1): 114-117 (2005).

[22] Mani F., Damasceno H., Novelli E., Martins E, Sforcin J., Propolis: Effect of Different Concentrations, Extracts and Intake Period on Seric Biochemical Variables, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 105(1): 95-98, (2006).

[23] Jasprica I., Mornar A., Debeljak Ž., Smolčić-Bubalo A., Medić-Šarić M., Mayer L., Romić Ž., Bućan K., Balog T, Sobočanec S., In Vivo Study of Propolis Supplementation Effects on Antioxidative Status and Red Blood Cells, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 110(3): 548-554 (2007).

[24] Watanabe M.A.E., Amarante M.K., Conti B.J., Sforcin J.M., Cytotoxic Constituents of Propolis Inducing Anticancer Effects: A Review, Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 63(11): 1378-1386 (2011).

[25] Lavigne J-P., Vitrac X., Bernard L., Bruyère F., Sotto A., Propolis Can Potentialise the Anti-Adhesion Activity of Proanthocyanidins on Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli in the Prevention of Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections, BMC Research Notes, 4(1): 522-   (2011).

[26] Campos-Vega R., Pool H., Vergara-Castañeda H., "Micro and Nanoencapsulation: A New Hope
to Combat the Effects of Chronic Degenerative Diseases
, in Foods: Bioactives, Processing, Quality and Nutrition", Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (2013).

[27] Matalanis A., Jones O.G., McClements D.J., Structured Biopolymer-Based Delivery Systems
for Encapsulation, Protection, and Release of Lipophilic Compounds
, Food Hydrocolloids, 25(8): 1865-1880, (2011).

[28] McClements D.J., Crystals and Crystallization in Oil-in-Water Emulsions: Implications for Emulsion-Based Delivery Systems, Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 174: 1-30 (2012).

[30] Kim D-M., Lee G-D., Aum S-H., Kim H-J., Preparation of Propolis Nanofood and Application
to Human Cancer
, Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 31(9): 1704-1710 (2008).