Vortex and Oil Distribution of Oil-Water Annular Flow through Ball Valve

Document Type: Research Article


School of Mechanical and Electric Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, 510006, P.R. CHINA


The study on the flow behave inside of a ball valve is important for heavy crude oil transportation. Owe to the fast progress of the numerical technique, it becomes an effective way to observe the flows inside a valve and to analyze the flow structure of the oil-water core annular flow. In the present study, the simulation of the oil-water core annular flowing through the valve is conducted by combined the VOF and CSF model, and the effects of open rate on vortex and oil distribution characteristics are analyzed. The simulated data is a satisfactory match with empirical value and the experimental results. The results show that there are lots of vortexes inside and behind the valve, the coordinate values of the vortex decrease and the aggregation rate increases with an increase in open rate. As the input velocity increases, the change rate of the vortex position is greater, and the oil aggregation rate decreases, the highly viscous oil with has greater aggregation rate after flow through the valve, and the variation of the vortex core position is relatively slow. As the vortex flow across the oil core, the oil will be scattered and contributes to the instability of the annular flow.


Main Subjects

[1] Jiang F., Wang Y.J., Ou J.J., Xiao Z.M., Numerical Simulation on Oil-Water Annular Flow Through
the Π Bend
, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 53: 8235-8244 (2014).

[2] Russell T.W.F., Charles M.E., The Effect of Less Viscous Liquid in the Laminar Flow of Two Immiscible Liquids, Canad. J. Chem. Eng., 37: 18-24 (1959).

[3] Charles M.E., Govier G.W., Hodgson G.W., The Horizontal Pipeline Flow of Equal Density of Oil–Water Mixtures, Canad. J. Chem. Eng., 39: 17-36 (1961).

[4] Arney M.S., Bai R., Guevara E., Joseph D.D., Liu K., Friction Factor and Hold up Studies for Lubricated Pipelining I. Experiments and Correlations, Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 19: 1061-1067 (1993).

[6] Strazza D., Grassi B., Demori M., Ferrari V., Poesio P., Core-Annular Flow in Horizontal and Slightly Inclined Pipes: Existence, Pressure Drops, and Hold-Up, Chem. Eng. Sci., 66: 2853-2863 (2011).

[7] Bai R., Chen K., Joseph D.D., Lubricated Pipelining: Stability of Core-Annular Flow: Part 5. Experiments and Comparison with Theory, J. Fluid Mech., 240: 97-132 (1992).

[8] Gabryk K.M., Pietrzak M., Troniewski L., Study on Oil-Water Two-Phase Up Flow in Vertical Pipes,
J. Petrol. Sci. Eng., 117: 28-36 (2014).

[9] Rodriguez O.M.H., Bannwart A.C., de Carvalho C.H.M., Pressure Loss in Core Annular Flow: Modeling, Experimental Investigation and Full Scale Experiments, J. Petrol. Sci. Eng., 65: 67-75 (2009).

[10] Bentwich M., Two-Phase Axial Laminar Flow in a Pipe with Naturally Curved Surface, Chem. Eng. Sci., 31: 71-76 (1976).

[11] Howard H.H., Daniel D.J., Lubricated Pipelining: Stability of Core-Annular Flow Part 2, J. Fluid Mech., 205: 323-356 (1989).

[12] Howard H.H., Neelesh P.F., Non-Axisymmetric Instability of Core-Annular Flow, J. Fluid Mech., 290: 213-224 (1995).

[13] Azizi S., Karimi H., Darvishi P., Flow Pattern and Oil Holdup Prediction in Vertical Oil–Water Two–Phase Flow Using Pressure Fluctuation Signal, Iran. J. Chem. Chem. Eng. (IJCCE), 36(2): 125-141 (2017).

[14] Li J., Renardy Y.Y., Direct Simulation of Unsteady Axisymmetric Core-Annular Flow with High Viscosity Ratio, J. Fluid Mech., 391: 123-149 (1999).

[15] Ooms G., Pourquie M.J.B.M., Beerens J.C., On the Levitation Force in Horizontal Core-Annular Flow with a Large Viscosity Ratio and Small Density Ratio, Phys. Fluids, 25: 032102 (2013).

[16] Sumana G., Das G., Das, P.K., Simulation of Core Annular in Return Bends-A Comprehensive
CFD Study
, Chem. Eng. Res. Des., 89: 2244-2253 (2011).

[17] Jiang F., Wang Y.J., Ou J.J., Chen C.G., Numerical Simulation of Oil-Water Core Annular Flow in
a U-Bend Based on the Eulerian Model
, Chem. Eng. Technol.,  37: 659-666 (2014).

[18] Jiang F., Long Y., Wang Y.J., Liu Z.Z., Chen C.G., Numerical Simulation of Non-Newtonian Core Annular Flow Through Rectangle Return Bends, J. Appl. Fluid Mech., 9: 431-441 (2016).

[20] Laurmaa V., Picasso M., Steiner G., An Octree-Based Adaptive Semi-Lagrangian VOF Approach for Simulating the Displacement of Free Surfaces, Comput. Fluids, 131: 190-204 (2016).

[21] Xu H., Guang Z.M., Qi Y.Y., Hydrodynamic Characterization and Optimization of Contra-Push Check Valve by Numerical Simulation, Ann. Nucl. Energy, 38: 1427-1437 (2011).

[22] Posa A., Oresta P., Lippolis A., Analysis of a Directional Hydraulic Valve by a Direct Numerical Simulation Using an Immersed-Boundary Method, Energy Convers. Manage., 65: 497-506 (2013).

[23] Valdes J.R., Rodriguez J.M., Monge R., Pena J.C., Putz T., Numerical Simulation and Experimental Validation of the Cavitating Flow Through a Ball Check Valve, Energy Convers. Manage., 78: 776-786 (2014).

[24] Ghosh S., Das G., Das P.K., Simulation of core Annular Down Flow Through CFD -A Comprehensive Study, Chem. Engin. Process., 49: 1222-1228 (2010).

[25] Kaushik V.V.R., Ghosh S., Das G., Das P.K., CFD Simulation of Core Annular Flow Through Sudden Contraction and Expansion, J. Petrol. Sci. Engin., 86-87: 153-164 (2012).

[27] Reddy R. K., Joshi J. B., CFD Modeling of Solid–Liquid Fluidized Beds of Mono and Binary Particle Mixtures, Chem. Engin. Sci., 64: 3641-3658 (2009).

[28] Baltussen M.W., Kuipers J.A.M., Deen N.G., A Critical Comparison of Surface Tension Models for the Volume of Fluid Method, Chem. Engin. Sci., 109: 65-74 (2014).

[29] Ansys Inc., Fluent 17 User’s Guide. USA, 2015.

[30] Bannwart A.C., Rodriguez O.M.H., de Carvalho C.H.M., Wang I.S., Vara R.M.O., Flow Patterns in Heavy Crude Oil-Water Flow, J. Energ. Resour. Technol., 26: 184-189 (2004).

[31] Bai R., Joseph D.D., Steady Flow and Interfacial Shape of a Highly Viscous Dispersed Phase, Int. J. Multi. Flow, 26: 1469-1491 (2000).

[32] Mohammad T.S.T., Soran P., Morteza G., Numerical Study on the Effect of the Cavitation Phenomenon on the Characteristics of Fuel Spray, Math. Comput. Model., 56: 105-117 (2012).

[33] Tsukahara T., Maeda T., Hibara A., Mawatari K., Kitamori T., Direct Measurements of the Saturated Vapor Pressure of Water Confined in Extended Nanospaces using Capillary Evaporation Phenomena, Rsc Adv., 2: 3184-3186 (2012).