Removal of Cd2+ from Aqueous Solution by Nickel Oxide/CNT Nanocomposites

Document Type: Research Article


1 Department of Chemistry, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, I.R. IRAN

2 Department of Physics, Qaemshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr, I.R. IRAN


The present work investigates the efficiency of the nickel oxide/carbon nanotube (NiO/CNT) nanocomposite for the removal of Cd2+ metal ions from an aqueous. The NiO/CNT nanocomposite was synthesized by the direct co-precipitation method in an aqueous media in the presence of CNTs. The resulting materials were characterized by FT-IR, XRD, SEM, N2 adsorption-desorption analysis. In order to optimize the adsorption of Cd2+ ions on NiO/CNT nanocomposite, the effects of the different parameters—namely pH, contact time, initial concentration of Cd2+, and adsorbent dosage—were also studied. Experimental data revealed that the Cd2+ ions adsorption of the NiO/CNT nanocomposite was through Langmuir and Temkin isotherm models rather than the Freundlich model. The kinetic data of adsorption of Cd2+ ions on the adsorbent was best described by a pseudo-second-order equation, indicating their chemical adsorption. Thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG°, ΔH°, and ΔS° were calculated. The obtained values showed that the adsorption was spontaneous and exothermic in nature. The reusability test showed that the Cd2+ could be easily removed from the surface site of NiO/CNT nanocomposite by a 0.1 M nitric acid solution as the adsorption capacity was maintained after 5 cycles of the adsorption/desorption process. This suggests that NiO/CNT nanocomposite can be reused through many cycles of water treatment and regeneration.


Main Subjects

[1] Sharma Y.C., Thermodynamics of Removal of Cadmium by Adsorption on an Indigenous Clay, Chem. Eng. J., 145: 64–68 (2008).

[2] Perez-Marin A.B., Zapata V.M., Ortuno J.F., Aguilar M., Saez J., Llorens M., Removal of Cadmium from Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption onto Orange Waste, J. Hazard. Mater., 139: 122–131 (2007).

[3]Flowler B.A., Monitoring of Human Populations for Early Markets of Cadmium Toxicity, A Review, Toxicol. Appl pharmacol., 238(3): 294-300 (2009).

[4] Wang F.Y., Wang H., Ma J.W., Adsorption of Cadmium (II) Ions from Aqueous Solution by a New Low-Cost Adsorbent—Bamboo Charcoal, J. Hazard. Mater., 177(1): 300-306 (2010).

[5] Poorsadeghi S., Kassaee M.Z., Fakhri H., Mirabedini M., Removal of Arsenic from Water Using Aluminum Nanoparticles Synthesized through Arc Discharge Method, Iran. J. Chem. Chem. Eng. (IJCCE), 36(4): 91-99 (2017).

[6] Saffaj N., Loukil H., Younssi S.A., Albizane A., Bouhria M., Persin M., Larbot A., Filtration of  Solution Containing Heavy Metals and Dyes by Means of Ultrafiltration Membranes Deposited on Support Made of Morrocan Clay, Desalination, 168: 301 (2004).

[7] Qdias H.A., Moussa H., Removal of Heavy Metals from the Wastewater by Membrane Processes:
A Comparative Study
, Desalination, 164: 105-110 (2004).

[8] Shi Z., Zou P., Guo M., Yao S., Adsorption Equilibrium and Kinetics of Lead Ion onto Synthetic Ferrihydrites, Iran. J. Chem. Chem. Eng.(IJCCE), 34(3): 25-32 (2015).

[9] Chen G.H., Electrochemicals Technologies in Wastewater, Sep. Purif. Technol, 38(10): 11 (2004).

[10] Sharma Y.C., Thermodynamics of Removal of Cadmium by Adsorption on an Indigenous Clay, Chem. Eng. J., 145: 64–68 (2008).

[11] Tan G.Q., Xiao D., Adsorption of Cadmium Ion from Aqueous Solution by Ground wheat Stems,
J. Hazard. Mater., 164: 1359–1363 (2009).

[12] Benguella B., Benaissa H., Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Chitin: Kinetic and Equilibrium Studies, Water Res., 36: 2463–2474 (2002).

[13] Meng Y.T., Zheng Y.M., Zhang L.M., He J.Z., Biogenic Mn Oxides for Effective Adsorption of Cd from Aquatic Environment, Environ. Pollut., 157: 2577–2583 (2009).

[14] Soltani R.D.C., Jafari A.J., Khorramabadi Gh.S., Investigation of Cadmium (II) Ions Biosorption
onto Pretreated Dried Activated Sludge
, Am. J. Environ. Sci., 5: 41–46 (2009).

[15] Sanchooli Moghaddam M., Rahdar S., Taghavi M., Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Solutions Using Saxaul Tree Ash, Iran. J. Chem. Chem. Eng. (IJCCE), 35 (3): 45-52 (2016).

[16] Haq Nawaz B., Rubina K., Muhammad Asif  H., Biosorption of Pb(II) and Co(II) on Red Rose Waste Biomass, Iran. J. Chem. Chem. Eng.(IJCCE), 30(4): 81-88 (2011). 

[17] Garg U., Kaur M.P., Jawa G.K., Sud D., Garg V.K., Removal of Cadmium (II) from Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption on Agricultural Waste Biomass,
J. Hazard. Mater., 154: 1149–1157 (2008).

[19] Li Z.Z., Katsumi T., Imaizumi S., Tang X.W., Inui T., Cd(II) Adsorption on Various Adsorbents Obtained from Charred Biomaterials, J. Hazard. Mater., 183: 410–420 (2010).

[20] Kumar R., Singh R.K., Dubey P.K., Singh D. P., Yadav R.M., Tiwari R.S., Freestanding 3D Graphene–Nickel Encapsulated Nitrogen-Rich Aligned Bamboo Like Carbon Nanotubes for High-Performance Supercapacitors with Robust Cycle Stability, Adv. Mater. Interfaces, 2: 1500191 (2015).

[21] Tashauoei H.R., Attar H.M., Amin M.M., Kamali M., Nikaeen M., Dastjerdi M.V., Removal of Cadmium and Humic Acid from Aqueous Solutions Using Surface Modified Nanozeolite A, Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol., 7: 497–508 (2010).

[22] Visa M., Bogatu C., Duta A., Simultaneous Adsorption of Dyes and Heavy Metals from Multicomponent Solutions Using Fly Ash, Appl. Surf. Sci., 256: 5486–5491 (2010).

[23] Chen C.L., Wang X.K., Nagatsu M., Europium Adsorption on Multiwall Carbon nanotube/Iron Oxide Magnetic Composite in the Presence of Polyacrylic Acid, Environ. Sci. Technol., 43: 2362–2367 (2009).

[24] Gupta V. K., Agarwal S., Saleh T. A., Synthesis and Characterization of Alumina-Coated Carbon Nanotubes and Their Application for Lead Removal, J. Hazard. Mater., 185: 17-23 (2011).

[25] Navaei Diva T., Zare K., Taleshi F., Yousefi M., Synthesis, Characterization, and Application of Nickel Oxid/CNT Nanocomposites to Remove Pb2+ from Aqueous Solution, J. Nanostruct. Chem., 7(3): 273-281 (2017).

[26] Taleshi F., A New Strategy for Increasing the Yield of Carbon Nanotubes by the CVD Method, Fullerenes, Nanotubes, and Carbon Nanostructures, 22: 921-927 (2014).

[27] Pashai Gatabi M., Milani Moghaddam H., Ghorbani M., Efficient Removal of Cadmium Using Magnetic Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Nanoadsorbents: Equilibrium, Kinetic, and Thermodynamic Study,
J. Nanopart Res., 18: 189 (2016).

[28] Rao M.M., Ramesh A., Rao G.P.C., Seshaiah K., Removal of Copper and Cadmium from the Aqueous Solutions by Activated Carbon Derived from Ceiba pentandra Hulls, J. Hazard. Mater.,B 129: 123–129 (2006).

[29] Lu C., Chiu H., Liu C., Removal of Zinc(II) from Aqueous Solution by Purified Carbon Nanotubes: Kinetics and Equilibrium Studies, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 45: 2850-2855 (2006).

[30] Kanthapazham R., Ayyavu C., Mahendiradas D., Removal of Pb2+, Ni2+ and Cd2+ Ions in Aqueous Media Using Functionalized MWCNT Wrapped Polypyrrole Nanocomposite, Desalination and Water Treatment, 57(36): 16871-16885 (2016).

[31] Gu H., Lou H., Tian J., Liu S., Tang Y., Reproducible Magnetic Carbon Nanocomposites Derived from Polystyrene with Superior Tetrabromobisphenol A Adsorption Performance, J. Mater. Chem. A, 4: 10174-10185 (2016).

[32] Torabinejad A., Nasirizadeh N., Yazdanshenas M.E., Tayebi H.A., Synthesis of Conductive Polymer-Coated Mesoporous MCM-41 for Textile Dye Removal from Aqueous Media, Journal of Nanostructure in Chemistry, 7(3): 217-229 (2017).

[35] Rengaraj S., Joo C.K., Kim Y., Yi J., Kinetics of Removal of Chromium from Water and Electronic Process Wastewater by Ion Exchange Resins: 1200H, 1500H and IRN97H., J. Hazard. Mater., B 102: 257–275 (2003).

[36] Faraji H., Mohamadi A. A., Soheil Arezomand H. R., Mahvi A. H., Kinetics and Equilibrium Studies of the Removal of  Blue Basic 41 and Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solution Using Rice Stems, Iran. J. Chem. Chem. Eng.(IJCCE), 34(3): 33-42 (2015).

[37] Chen Y., Li F., Kinetic Study on Removal of Copper(II) Using Goethite and Hematite Nano-Photo Catalysts, J. Coloid and Interface Science, 347: 277-281(2010).

[38] Sanchooli Moghaddam M., Rahdar S., Taghavi M., Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Solutions Using Saxaul Tree Ash, Iran. J. Chem. Chem. Eng. (IJCCE), 35(3): 45-52 (2016).

[39]Gupta V.K., Jain  C., Ali  I., Sharma M.,  Saini V., Removal  of Cadmium  and Nickel from Wastewater Using Bagasse Fly Ash—A Sugar Industry Waste, Water Res., 37(16): 4038-4044 (2003).

[40] Li Y.H., Wang S., Luan Z., Ding J., Xu C., Wu D., Adsorption of Cadmium (II) from Aqueous Solution by Surface Oxidized Carbon Nanotubes, Carbon, 41: 1057–1062 (2003).

[41]  Hsieh S.H., Horng J.J., Adsorption behavior of Heavy Metal Ions by Carbon Nanotubes Grown
on Microsized Al2O3 Particles
, Int. J. Miner Metal Mater., 14: 77–84 (2007).

[43] Vukovic´ G.D., Marinkovic´ A..D, olic´ M., Ristic´ M.Ð., Aleksic´ R., Peric´-Grujic´ A.A., Uskokovic´ P.S., Removal of Cadmium from Aqueous Solutions by Oxidized and Ethylenediamine-Functionalized Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes, Chem. Eng. J., 157: 238–248 (2010).

[45] Andrade-Espinosa G., Mun˜oz-Sandoval E., Terrones M., Endo M., Terrones H., Rangel-Mendez J.R., Acid Modified Bamboo-Type Carbon Nanotubes and Cup-stacked-Type Carbon Nanofibres as Adsorbent Materials: Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Solution, J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol., 84: 519–524 (2009).